POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF TIPTUR TOWN
Geographical investigation related to human settlements studies various aspects give emphasis to the population characteristics, like population distribution, its growth, its density, rate of literacy, sex ratio, ethnicity, etc., are some of the general aspects normally taken in to consideration in a settlement study. The resource base of an urban settlement with its size of hinterland reflects the population size of the town. However the internal distribution and concentration are directly related to the sit and the functional characteristics of the area. In this chapter an attempt has been made to study the growth of population, literacy, gender or sex ratio, occupational structure and ethnic composition of Tiptur town.
Table No. 3.1
Tumkur District town’s Population 1991
|Sl. No.||Name and Administrative Status of town||Persons||Rank||Male||female|
SOURCE: Tumkur Census Handbook 1991.
NOTE: C.M.C. (City Municipal Council); T.M.C. (Town Municipal Council); M.P. (Municipality)
POPULATION GROWTH OF TIPTUR TOWN:
In order to study the growth of population of Tiptur town, census data has been used. Tiptur is the second largest towns in Tumkur District (See Table No.3.2 and Figure No. 3.1) reveal that, in all the other decades, except 1911 Tiptur town has seen a positive growth in population. However the absolute growth is not a remarkable till 1931 which is just around 1000. Generally, poor economic conditions, incidence of epidemics like Plague and influenza etc. , mere some of the factors that affected the general urban growth in India. Since the urban – Rural interactions were also simple like exchanging cloth, hardware items or Jewelry with either attending the court or taluk office where the prominent functions, that too in smaller in number.
Population Growth of Tiptur Town 1901-2001
|Year||Total Population||In numbers||In percentage|
Source: Census of India. General Population Table (1971, 81, 91 and Estimated figures) for 2001
From the year 1911, Tiptur town has shown not only positive growth of population but also an over all higher growth rate. In terms of absolute figures the town has also seen sizable additions the population. This may be attributed to emergence of Tiptur as a chief coconut, broomsticks and copra (dry coconut Kernel) trading centre. For example, Tiptur emerged as a famous town for the manufacturing of broomsticks (made out of coconut sticks), as far as Northern India. There was also migration of cheap labourers from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and various parts of Karnataka to work in the growing coconut trade and industry (See Chapter No.V for details of copra hinterland). Subsequently areal expansion of the town could be seen in terms of new planned extensions [K.R. extension 1930-40 Gondhinagar (1950-60) etc.] In the post 1950’s again there has a sizeable migration not only from its hinterland but also from neighbouring states like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, to work as labourer in Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee, other construction on works and other activities.
Thus Tiptur emerged as a leading commercial town in the western part of the Tumkur district. Besides thus a special mention must be made about an enormous growth of educational institution and hostels in the post 1960 era. It has resulted in the settlement of students and teacher communities in the town. Addition to this, establishment of number of officer, expansion of transport and communication raise in other territory activities and supply of potable water from Hemavathi Projects canal have set to add a sizable population to Tiptur town. However till 1966 the absolute growth of population and Ariel growth of the town was limited. But the annexation of seven surrounding villages of Tiptur town into ambit of the town limits has also led to about 53.2% like in growth of population of Tiptur Town, in the decade of 1901-2001.
WARD WISE ASPECTS OF POPULATION:
The 2001 census in this area is yet to be conducted. And the 1991 census is too old for any contemporary consideration. Hence, indirect method is used to compute area and population all the 27 Municipal words of Tiptur town in 2000-2001 (See Table No.3.3). It is very vast and intensive sample survey where in each ward 100 household have been taken and the actual (100%) number of households from each ward have been multiplied to get total population and other population characteristics. The approximate population obtained is 55257 for the year 2000-2001.
The ward wise area has been calculated by applying source or grid method. The ward map obtained from municipal office has been superimposed by grids and the area has been calculated by square methods. The area is estimated to be 10.5 sq. K.ms.
Ward Wise Distribution of Population in Tiptur Town (2000-2001)
|Sl. No.||Area (in Km2)||Population||%||Male||%||Female||%||Density per sq.kms|
Ward wise Population density:
The population density per square kilometer is calculated by using ward wise population and extent of respective ward.
As per Tiptur town Planning Authority map, three wards out of 27 have more than one sq. k.m. area. The average population density of the village limit like bandihally, Goragordanahalli, and Korchaghatta account for 4400. Since they form the outskirts of te town, they support rather low population density in the urban limits of Tiptur town (See Figure No.3.2)
From the field observation it has come to light that the localities which have low density are ward (1, 22, 23, 21, 25, 26, 27, 11 and 12). A.P.M.C., which is an area, infested with commercial establishmens particularly related to copra trade. Localities like Vinayakanagara (Ward No.11), though it is close to core area, it has large lenear area, projecting towards west has non-residential land use and comprising with administrative area. Ward Kallppa Shetty garden area has a vast area under coconut garden and also sizable vacant property. Hence these localities have low density. However wards 1, 22, 23, 25, 26 and 27 are outskirts of the town with village limits. Thus the reduced population density could be attributed to the areas which were gardens before or which were recently acquired in order to form layouts.
Six wards of Tiptur town have a medium density of 5001 to 15000 persons per Sq. k.m. (Table No.3.3and Figure No.3.2). Wards like 6, 7, 9, 10, 24and 3 have come under this medium population density. Ward 3 and 6 have quite a sizable area under public utility and vast coconut gardens. Though they lie within in the central part of the town, vacant land around temples and private gardens have led to medium population density. Wards like part of K.R. Extension (Ward 7) and Shankarappa.
Layouts (Ward 9) have medium density, because they are not only planned extensions but also have sizable area under public utility services and vacant lands. Wards 10 and 24 also have sizable vacant area ward 24 has some handloom industry, which support rather higher medium density.
Wards of High Population density:
In a class 3 town like Tiptur one cannot expect the prevailing high population density only in the core area. But also in a planned residential area where a part of it may be a middle class area and the other part may be lower middle class area occupied by poor class leading to high population density. Ward like 2 and 4 form the core business area of the town. Part of the K.R extension (ward 8) is planned and developed residential area which support high population density.
Ward 13 part of Gandhinagar area (Dastagirkatte) needs special mention because of the development of slum supports highest population density in Tiptur town (See Figure No.3.2).
Other parts of Gandhinagar consisting of Wards of 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 are crowed by poor and lower middle class residential localities. A high absence of vacant and public utility lands.
LITERACY SCENARIO OF TIPTUR TOWN:
The study of population characteristics of urban settlements also involves, knowing about the growth of literacy. Indirectly the prevailing literacy indicates the living standards of the people. From the literacy of the town, we can also judge the availability of education. Thus literacy forms on indicator of several aspects of the study. In this section an attempt has been made to know the rate of literacy of Tiptur Town since 1951 (See Table -3.4)
Table No. 3.4
Literacy in Tiptur – 1951-2002. Literacy rate of Tiptur town
|Sl.No.||Year||Literate Persons||% to respective total population|
|Males||Females||Males||Female||Total literate||Average percentage|
Source: Census Report -1991
A glance at table – 3.5 reveals that the average literacy and male female rate of literacy of Tiptur Town from 1951-2001. It also reflects that, it is not only second largest town in the Tumkur district but it has always recorded highest rate of literacy.
Tumkur and Tiptur are the centres of a wide variety of educational institutions from the primary to the college level. This is particularly true of Tiptur Town, which has established Kalpataru Education institutions and a host of other education institutions. Since 1962 in fact Kalpataru runs educational institutions from nursery to college level. Due to the private and government initiatives, lower education institutions were established during 1970s 1980s and 1990s. This led to the remarkable growth on literate in the town (See Figure No.3.3). The unique characteristic of this part of Tumkur district is that there is a sizable growth of female literacy. When the male literacy was marked 73.45% in 1991, in the same year the female literacy was marked 63.58% (to total respective population) in Tiptur town. This is certainly above to district and state averages.
This is particularly true from the statistics available for the tomn about the literacy of 1991. (See Table No.3.5). A detailed study of the table brings to notice the prevailed taluk wise and town wise literacy for the year 1991. In terms of a large literacy, Tiptur Town stood first with 65.31% among 10 Taluks of Tumkur district. As mentioned earlier, the presence of good number of educational institution maintained by both private and the government is the reason for the development.
Table No. 3.5
Taluk wise Literacy Rate in Tumkur District for 1991
Source: Tumkur District Census Hand Book 1991.
It is a remarkable aspect of socio – economic growth in the western port of Tumkur district that, people of this region have given appreciable support for the growth of female literacy since 1971. Tiptur town being a central point for education this side has led to the remarkable growth of female literacy from 50% in 1971 to over 68% by 2001. (See Table No.3.4).
In 1991 when the state average literacy was 56% the Tumkur district had 54.5% of average literacy in which Tiptur Town had average literacy of almost 80%. This is far above the state and district averages in which male literacy was 85% and female was 74%. As it has been mentioned several times the pressure of good number of educational institutions. Both in the town and in the region with progressive attitude towards education, which is often supported by religious institutions literacy has flourished enormously.
Number of Educational Institutions in Tiptur Town 2000-2001
|1.Primary & Higher Primary||33||58.92|
|2. High Schools and Junior Colleges||16||28.57|
|3. Colleges and Technical Institutions||7||12..51|
Source: Data complied by personal survey.
SEX RATIO SCENRIO IN TIPTUR TOWN:
One of the chief characteristics of population is the male – female ratio or sex ratio in Indian census it has been expressed as number of females per thousand males. It is an important measure of population, which indirectly denotes several socio economic aspects of the region indirectly. For instance a mining town or recently established town to utilize fixed resource, an industrial town etc, in their initial status has more males than female population (Beaju Garner). It is a well knows fact that as town becomes more matured in Ariel growth and its population composition, it will have rather balanced sex ratio. In spite of it, towns of certain region (Kerala), due to socio – economic compulsions have imbalance sex ratio.
In this section an attempt has been made to understand the sex ratio of Tiptur Town For this purpose census data has been analysed from 1891 to 2001 (See Table 3.7 Figure 3.4). A cursory look at the table denotes the undulating profile of gender ratio of Tiptur Town In its initial stages when the town is making its presence it has supported the highest number of females per thousand males in 1891(1981-1047 females). It is rather unique and high for an urban settlement, which is just rising. This may be attributed to prevailing of joint family and love for female children.
Table No. 3.7
Sex ratio of Tiptur Town
|Year||Total population||Males||%||Female||%||Sex ratio|
Source: Tumkur District Census Reports.
Table No. 3.8
Gender or Sex Ratio for the Town of Tumkur Districts /1000 males, in 1991
|Sl. No.||Name and Administration status of the Town||No. of Females per 1000 males||Rank|
Source: Tumkur District Census Hand book 1991
Note: T.M.C. = (Town Municipal Council); M.P. = (Municipality); C.M.C. = (City Municipal Council)
However in the periods, which are considered for analysis, 1911 has the lowest gender ratio of 778 females per thousand moles. As it is well known that the epidemics like (Cholera and Influenza have taken their tale of female population). It is obvious that female children must have has less care than males. Between 1931-1951 the sex ration was between 844-886. In 1961 though it made slight progress, again it fell to 853 and 888 in 1971 and1981 respectively. However it was far below the state (963) and district (961) averages. This undulation profile in sex ration particularly 1971 and 1981 which is rather lower number of female can be attributed to poor water supply in the town which prevented the settling of whole family and the rising of outsiders either seeking education and trade and commerce are some of the reasons. However, the scenario of sex ration id getting normalized in 1991 and in 2001 Tiptur town is far below the state (1960), the district (1959), and even taluk at rages (1970). But there has been a rise, which is a good sign of healthy society.
OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE OF TIPTUR TOWN:
Occupational structure of a town plays a very important role in indicating its economic base. The dimensions of occupations and the respective share of workers can also be understood by studying occupational structure of a town. Towns and cities as central places have a wide mixture of non-agricultural and even to some extent agricultural functions. However the mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary functions is urban settlement specific. While the study of functions of urban settlement of a given region broadly explains either hierarchy of urban settlements based on functional or simple classification or grouping of the town into dominate functional type. The former classification is quantitative and systematically done by W.chirstaller, R. Ramachndran1, V.L.S Parakasha Rao2 and a host of others, where as the later one is a qualitative and sami quantitative in nature and where we can cite the classical works of C.D. Harris3 and H.J. Nelson4 these grate works on the occupational/functional natural of towns and cities are based on census data, which is conveniently reduced to suitable indices in order to compare and the functional characters of the urban settlements of the area concern (U.S.A) sufficient light has been thrown on the occupational structure of individual urban settlement by Smailes A.E, Dickinson5, Singh R.L 6, and others.
However the present investigation deals with the understanding the change of occupational structure of the class 3 town if Tumkur district in Karnataka, in fact the census data for the year 1971, 1981 and 1991 has been analyzed (See Table 3.9)
1. Functional Classification of American town
2. Service classification of American towns.
Occupation Structure Scenario 1971
The following table shows broad category of occupational structure available in census India:
II. Agricultural labourers
III. Livestock, forestry, fishing, Hunting, Plantation, orchards and allied activities.
IV. Mining and quarrying
V. (a) Manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs in household industries.
(b) Manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs other than household industries.
VII. Trade and Commerce
VIII. Transport, Storage and Construction.
IX. Other services.
A detailed glance of Table 3.9 shows the occupation structure of Tiptur town as per census categories cited above for the years 1971 and 1991. Of course in 1981 the categories have been combined in to five.
In 1971, the primary activities from one to five account for 6.3%. Tiptur town is naturally evolved central place/town in the middle of agricultural landscape of western Tumkur district. In most of the urban centres in this part and in other parts of India there is a presence of some primary activities. In case of Tiptur town, there are households, which own and cultivate some agricultural lands specially coconut garden. Others in this broad category are highly negligible.
Secondary occupations like manufacturing households industry together account for 19.2% of the total workers in 1971. In the early 1970s the industrial sector consisted of industries like, desiccated Coconut powder, oil, coir, match work, Soap Manufacture etc., hence we see relatively sizable percentage of workers under secondary type of occupations. The industrial workers were mainly distributed in Gandhinagar area and they were also distributed in Kote, Mavinathopu, behind general hospital and other parts of the town.
Urban settlements really survive with the growth of verity of tertiary functions, which include workers engaged in trade and commerce, storage transportation and verity of other service. (Teachers, Doctors, Engineers, Administrators etc.,) Tiptur being an important central place renders commercial services like whole sale copra trade with its vast copra hinterland and trade links with a Varity of provisional, medical, hardware and other stores. It is also an important administrative centre for the taluk, and also sub-divisional head quarter consisting of C.N. Hally and Turuvekere. It is an important educational centre with Kalpataru educational institutions, a host of high Schools and other lowers educational institution. It has a vast health service zone having sub divisional general hospital about 30 clinics and 10 nursing homes.
In addition to these tertiary functional, Tiptur town has a good number of transport vehicles, repairs and service mainly distributed along B.H. Road and other arterial Roads. Even now their number is growing even after thirty years. Hence we see the predominance of workers engaged in tertiary occupation.
However Table 3.9 shows that worker of all these categories (primary, secondary and tertiary) together accounted for 27.8% of total population of town (1971). It means that there is a sizable percentage of non-working population. This is nothing but the dependent population where males accounted for 40.4% and females 59.6% of the non-working population but in the main workers males accounted for 89.2% of the workers and female population accounted for 10.8%. (See Figures No.3.5)
Occupation Structure 1981:
A look at Table 3.9 a reveals a very abridged category of workers. Due to the very paucity of basic data much light cannot be thrown on either the distribution or growth/composition of various categories of workers. Broadly it can be said that about 5% of the workers are primary in nature which is slightly lower than 1971 figure. It is obvious that with the march of urbanization and mechanization in agriculture there is a decline in workers in primary category.
However, at the same time one can also see sizable workers in urban areas over the years; have been shifted from primary to secondary and even to tertiary sector. The growing literacy and also diversified growth of tertiary functions in nook and corner of the urban areas have led to rapid growth of secondary and tertiary functions. These two categories have accounted for over 95% of the total working population.
It is quite interesting to note that among the workers male accounted for 88.8% where as the females accounted for 11.2% which shows only marginal increase. However in the case of females there is a slight increase of workers. It may be due to increase in female literacy or also due to the economic compulsions. In fact the later is increasing over the years.
However among the non workers in 1981 the dependent population (21654), males accounted for 60.6% where as females accounted for 39.47% if we look into the deeper aspects of decline of the population of male dependents and a very slight increase of female dependent directly indicate the growing need for people working in one job or the other.
Occupation Structure in 1991:
There are perceptible changes in the occupation structure of Tiptur town in 1991 (census when compared to particularly with 1971 figures). In the last 20 years tiptur town has grown into a bigger urban settlement. Several services and functions have also grown in the town. There is a steep increase in number of shops and stores along B.H. Road and else where in the town. Many administrative offices and education institutions have developed by 1991. The interaction of the town with its hinterland under various services has also increased many folds. Special mention must be made about the increase in trading of special economic item copra, in and out the state. The transportation too has increased many folds with growth in lorry (truck) services and the broad-gauge conversion of railways. Growth in banking institutions and migration of trading community from northern India have all added to the remarkable growth in basic and non basic sectors of the town.
A study of Table No.3.9 denotes that workers in all account for 31.5% of the total population (36053). Workers under primary occupation of town have declined to 5.8%. As a town in the middle of agricultural hinterland of coconut growing area, Tiptur accounted for 5.8% of workers under the working population of the town. It is common to see that some of the households still have retained their agricultural land while living in the town (See Figures 3.5)
By 1991 workers under secondary occupations, accounted for 17.1% of the total workers. Though the analyzed data shows the declining percentage of secondary workers in 1991 there is a growth in absolute number of workers. There is a remarkable growth in small and medium scale industries in the town. Like coconut/coir-based industries and loom industries have also increased resulting in the growth of workers under secondary occupations. This is only a marginal rise.
As it has been mentioned earlier, there is a growth in a variety of tertiary occupations in Tiptur town. This is specially happened during 1970s and 1980s. In the year 1991 workers under various tertiary occupations in the town have accounted for 77.1% of the total working population. Compared to 1971, there is a growth of over 3% of workers in these tertiary occupations. During 1980s, in and around Tiptur town there were some developmental activities like construction of Hemavathi Channel. Since Tiptur emerged as an important education centre, several families got settled in Tiptur to give better education to their offspring’s.
By 1991 total workers in Tiptur town accounted for 11373 which is 31.5% of the total percentage of Tiptur town (36053 persons). In which male accounted for 84% and females accounted for 16% [See Figures 3.5]
The relative decline of male workers and relative increase of female workers in last three decades denote, increased female literacy, the rise of tertiary workers (where female population could also took part).
If we come to the non-working population of the town, there is a declining share of male population, which has stood at 36.3%. However over the years we see there is a gradual increase of non-working female population. In 1991 it accounted for 63.4%. In a way this rise of non-working female population can be attributed to raise in female population has shown a rise in these years, the job opportunities are not adequate in the town, resulting in quite a good rise in non working female population (See Figure No.3.5)
Occupation scenario of Tiptur town in 2000-2001
In the present investigation an attempt has been made to study the occupation scenario for the year 2000-2001. As the 2001 census was not yet undertaken, the investigation has adopted a wide based random sampling of about 2700 households representing all sections of the town population. The estimated total population for the town comes to 55257. In this sample, the estimated total population of the field study has revealed that the workers account for 21219 persons (38.40%).
By 2001 the workers under primary occupations accounted for about 4.84% of the total workers, compared to the previous census there is a slight decrease. With 100 households in each, representing all economic sections, it is quite evident that by 2000-2001 due to the growth of a wide spectrum of secondary and tertiary non-agricultural occupations, one can see decline in primary occupations. Also with the mechanization of agriculture, fast growth in transportation, education, trade and commerce etc., there is a substantial decrease in primary occupations.
The emphasis given for the development of industries in the post 1990s has led to the growth of a variety of occupations in Tiptur town. A number of manufacture industries in large and medium scale industries were started (dehydrated coconut industry, brick industry, mattresses industry, oil industry, large number of handloom and power loom industry), but unfortunately, in the late 1990s a sizable secondary occupation population has come down due to the industrial sickness which is the result of WTO treaty. Even though there is a substantial growth of workers which accounted almost 11% of the total workers in Tiptur town, since the town is located in the middle of rich coconut hinterland, there is a growth of coconut based industries in the town like desiccated coconut powder, coir, mattresses etc.
In addition to this, we also see rapid growth of handlooms and power looms which are providing some exclusive textile items in the town (Bandage cloth, Saris). However we see the growth of absolute workers under secondary occupations rather than its share in total workers. (See Table 3.9)
While examining the primary data obtained during the field study, it has come to light that over 84% of total workers belong to wide range tertiary occupations which have grown in the town. As it is repeatedly mentioned, the wide variety of tertiary occupation represents a large chunk of not only town population but also the workers. Broadly the size of government employees, persons engaged in trade and commerce, persons engaged in transportation and communication, repairs and servicing teachers health service personals etc., have seen substantially increased in the recant years.
ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF TIPTUR TOWN:
One of the general characteristics of population normally taken into consideration under the population study of an urban settlements or region in the religious composition or the ethnicity. Apart from other socio economic implications ethic compositions ethic composition provides the more of each religious groups in the area under consideration.
As the all census year’s ethnic data was not available, only few years census data has been analyzed for the present purpose. A look at Table 3.10 and figure 3.7 reveals that though Hindus formed the majority of population, their share is declining in the total population. A point must be noted that all the religious groups including that of the Hindus have shown positive growth in absolute numbers. But over the years there is a variation in their respective share within the total population. The table reveals that the Hindus have declined in their shore from almost 82% in 1891 to 73% in 1991. The Hindus may attribute this to the increased awareness and adoption of family planning measures. Added to this the Hindu population readily adopts that the small family and other developmental schemes compare to the minority ethnic groups. The Hindu population is highly concentrated in control parts and also village limits of the town it is scattered and widely distributed in the town.
Contrary to this the ethnic minority is Muslim population in the town (See Table 3.10). The share of Muslim population in the town has seen continuous rise both in absolute and also in terms of percentage. In 1891 it accounted for 17% and by 1991 it crossed 25%. There is a high concentration of Muslim population in wards of Gandhinagar (Ward 17, 18, and 19). Normally Muslim families prefer large numbers of children. Hence we see their growth in the town.
Table No. 3.10
Religious composition (Ethnicity) of Tiptur Town
Source: Census of India-Town Directory 1981, and 1991 and Part X Karnataka
The other two small ethnic groups are the Christians and Jains, which account for less than 3% in the study period. However we see their absolute numbers is also increasing (except 1991). A special mention must be made about the Jain community regarding their role in trade and commerce in Tiptur town. As elsewhere, the Jains controls sizable private finance, trade and commerce. Though they account for less than 1% of the town population, they also form migrated population into the town.
Since 1991 a few Sikh families have settled in Tiptur. They form mainly the business community engaged in copra and broomstick trade. [See Figure No.3.6]