PATTERN OF LAND USE IN TIPTUR TOWN
The influences, which an urban area as a whole exerts on the social and economic structure of the area help in the formation of land, use pattern. The different functional characters are found concentrated at different places. The priority is for the economic and social utility of the particular function. According to Dickinson1 “the use which can pay the highest rent at a particular place occupies the land”. In urban expansion encroachment over the neighbouring agricultural lands and open places or vacant lands are common.
As a town expands, the over crowding of functions and over-lapping of different zones with in the town limits, necessitate thus their grouping into primary and secondary functions. Dickinson calls these zones “Natural areas” as they are the outcome of natural process. He opines as above while explaining the land uses of a city. The same process can be noticed in the development of town also, because a majority of cities are towns in their initial stage of development. Location of some important functional areas gives a definite direction and imprint on the development of a land use. For example, a temple town (Maduari in Tamil Nadu) on a simple market, a bus stands in a normal town which has evolved over the years around certain functions. Weather it is the shifting of a function out of a busy area or locating the same within the town limits again influence the growth of land use. Thus the town and area around it can be divided into different functional zones on the basis of different use of town’s land. The following Table No. 4.1 exhibits the areas of the different categories of land uses found in Tiptur.
Table No. 4.1
Distribution of Land under Different uses in Tiptur Town 1999-2000
|Sl. No.||Purpose||Actual used area in hects.||Percentage out of total area||Land reserved for future use||Percentage of reserved land|
|5||Parks, play grounds and open place||25.5||5.67||63.29||7.36|
|7||Agricultural and garden land||70.03||15.56||0||0|
|Total Developed area||449.96||100||860||100|
Sources: Data compiled by field work and Tiptur Town Municipality record.
In the last few decades Tiptur has seen remarkable growth of population. Keeping this in view and to regulate the growth in an orderly manner, the Karnataka Town and Country Planning Act 1969 was extended to this town by declaring “Tiptur Local Planning Area” vide Government, Notification No. HVD/335/T.T.P/96.dated 2/9/1996, has reserved 860.66 hects. Of land for the future development, that is, for the projected population figure of 2,011 which has been predicated to 86,000 persons? Table No. 4.2 shows the allocation of land for future use for different purposes by the Town Planning Authority and Figure No. 4.1 shows the present landuse of Tiptur Town.
Table No. 4.2
Proposed Land use by the town Planning Authority to Tiptur, 1996
|Sl. No.||Purposes||Area in hectares||Percentage|
|4||Public and semi public||62.67||7.29|
|5||Parks, play grounds and open place||63.29||7.39|
|6||Transports and communication||178.88||7.28|
|7||Regional park and water sheet||64.9||20.8|
|8||Agricultural and garden land||235.1||-|
As an important aspect of the present study, land uses have been investigated through extensive field survey, carried out during 1998-2000. This is based on the land use study by the investigator where the town’s total area is 10.5 Sq. Kms., which is slightly different from the area given by other authorities. To get proper figures research is based on primary field study and collected using land uses; using simple grid square method on town map supplied by municipality; various types of land uses; total and respective share have also been obtained. The findings are mapped and shown in Figure No. 4.1 and a detail report about land uses are as follows:
RESIDENTIAL LAND USE:
In the total land area of the Tiptur town among various land uses residential land use is a predominant area. In small and medium urban settlements, it is as high as over 50% of the total land of the urban area. It is slightly lower in the bigger urban areas like Bangalore City. It is accounting for 41%. As in big cities other forms of land uses emerge dominating the land use scenario influencing the predominant residential land uses. At the time of present study, in Tiptur town, the residential area was about 158.36 hects., (35.20%) and it is still growing every day. The new town plan has provided sufficient additional land for future expansion. Hence the residential land area has occupied a major area among the land uses, both in actual development (36.49%) and proposed development (53.20%). This gives the proposed gross residential density of 185 persons per hectare against the existing density of 322 persons per hectare in the old municipal limits. This additional area includes the land that is acquired for future projected population. It may bring down the density in some of the congested area. Distribution an development of residential areas on the bases of their origin and characteristics are further discussed.
Area wise Residential Land use:
For the field study of the Tiptur town about 8 broad residential areas have been identified. They are as follows:
1. Kota area
2. Pete area
3. West of R.S road and Kallappashetty Garden (K.S. garden)
4. Gandhinagara area
5. K.R. extension
6. New extensions H.B. colony, Shankarappa Layout, Vinayakanagara, Sharadanagar, Vidyanagar, Shadakshara Mutt Layout etc.
7. Slums areas
8. Villages within the town limit (Bandihalli, Goragondanahalli, Maranagere, Madihalli, Kanchaghatta, Annapura, Halepalya and Hosapalya).
In the current investigation an attempt has been made to study these areas with certain details.
1. Kote Residential Area:
Kote residential area is located in between railway line in the south, and B.H. road in the North Y.T. road in the east and Pete area in the west. This is a part of municipal ward No. 1(See Figure No. 4.2) Kote area represents the oldest part of the core town and most of its present inhabitants are descendants of the early settlers. Several of them are landholders and are still active agriculturists. If their ethnicity is considered, they are Hindu belonging to castes such as Lingayats, Vokkaligas and a few Brahmins which are also the chief land holding communities. Setty Banajiga and Dasar (also known as Deshabhagada Dasayyanavaru) castes also reside in the locality. These are labourers and tenant cultivators. Ganigas, Panchalas, Kumbaras, Kurubas have also been residing in this locality for generations. The houses are mostly single – storied, small and built of mud and tiles. Spacious houses with a modern look are only exceptions. Except for a handful of merchants and landlords, rest of the residents may be categorized as people of middle and poor classes in this part of Tiptur Town (See Plate No.2). Land use wise it has a rather limited vacant property. Houses are closely knit with narrow roads and to some extent congested.
2. Pete Area:
This is situated in between Railway line in the South and B.H Road in the North Railway Station Road in the West and Kote in the East (See Figure No. 4.2). This comes under ward no. 2, 3, 4 and 5. This area represents the second phase of the town’s growth and one of the highly density residential localities of Tiptur. Pete area may be subdivided into Doddapete, Hosapete, Santhepete, Nalabandavadi Road, Coronation Road, Shankar (or Dasar) Road, Ramamandir Road, Old Hospital Road, Station Road and so on. This covers a vast area and the streets are well formed and are lengthy. Merchants have been living in the Doddapete, Hosapete, and Santhepete areas for several decades and have their trading establishments also in these streets. The eastern half of Doddapete Road, with most of the other roads mentioned above is primarily residential. Viewed as a whole, this area is multi – ethnic and multi – occupational in composition. However, a deeper check showed that some concentration of Hindus like the Vysyas is relatively seen in Hosapete, Santhepete and in the vicinity of the Mallikarjuna temple. However, the Muslims are found relatively in high concentration in Nalabandavadi road, Makkan street and Police Lines as well as in the area by the side of land behind the taluk office compound. So also persons pursuing different occupations such as labourers, artisans, traders, transport operators and doctors may be come across within this locality. Naturally, housing conditions are also equally contrasting. Dilapidated, Single storied tiled houses are as common as moderate houses with brick walls and Mangalore tiled or R.C.C. roofs. There are a few modern structures, which are conspicuous in Doddapete, Hosapete, Railway Station Road, Shankar Road and the B.H. Road. In several streets of this locality the rich, the middle class and some of the poor live side by side.
As Pete area is one of the old residential localities of Tiptur town its land use is highly packed with built up areas. This is so in older residential households, shops and other commercial establishments. These are followed by limited public utility land use and vacant lands. Narrow congested roads with temples may also be seen here.
3. West of R.S Road and K.S. Garden:
The third stage of the growth of Tiptur town started from this section. It is a part of ward No. 6 and 12 and is surrounded by Railway Station Road on the East and railway track on the South; bus stand on the North an Vinayakanagar on the East (See Figure No. 4.2.). This part of Tiptur has more non-residential land used than extensive residential land use.
This locality has multiple land uses with old and new houses, where one can see both rich and poor people. It is quite common to see land put to uses like hotels, banks, offices, hostels, schools and gardens. It has congested areas with other land uses like industrial, shops, hospitals, lodges and temples. In terms of people living in this area, we see farmers, industrialist, businessmen and the general working class. This is a small area in Tiptur but is distinct as far as the multiplicity and complexity of the land use. Some of the rich families in the town have settled here in their big palatial houses. In a medium size Indian town like Tiptur, it is quite common to see businessmen reside near their business establishments in their well-built houses. It is not unusual to see some tiled houses huts where poor people reside. Such a commercial cum residential area is not commonly seen in this zone. There are some households belonging to lower middle and working classes household too. Even poor people working as daily wagers in business establishments, bus-stand railway station etc., and also live here. Some Houses have R.C.C. structures while others have been built with sheets. Except the Railway Station Road are narrow.
4. Krishna Rajendra Extension (K.R. Extension):
This is located to the West of bus stand and North of B.H. Road. Halkurke Road forms the western boundary and Shankarappa Layout in the north. Formerly this extension was called the Western Extension but renamed later as K.R. extension. Krishnarajendra Extension has been developed into a predominantly residential locality during the past 60 years. It is the only well planned extension having several main and cross roads besides a municipal park and an open air-theater. It is inhabited mostly by the higher castes among Hindus such as the Brahmins, Lingayats, Vysyas, Marathas (i.e., Darji) and some Devaganigas. There are also a few Christian houses and a church as well in this locality. Most of the residents belong to middle class. There are a few rich marchants, doctors, Lawyers, Government officers and also other salaried persons including college and school teachers. The houses wear a modern look and a few of them, owned and occupied by rich merchants and landlords, are quite imposing. The electric Colony, which lies to, the West of this extension, has also come up after 1940. Adjacent to it, however, is a group of old houses (called Govindapura) and are occupied by agriculturists.
5. Gandhinagara Area:
This is the widest among all the eight residential divisions divided for the proposes of residential land use analysis in the study. It is surrounded by the railway line in the South, garden in the North, Agricultural produce Marketing Committee (A.P.M.C) in the East and Maranagere in the West. Its spread covers Ward Nos. 13 to 21 continuously of Tiptur Municipalitly. Gandhinagara extension, formerly known as the Southern Extension, has developed since 1930 and to this has been added, in recent years, the localities called the A.K. Colony, the Bhovi Colony and the Tamillan Colony. Gandhinagara extension is a triangular are lying between the railway line and the Keragodi road. This is a planned extension with grid pattern of roads of poor standards. The streets and conservancies are very narrow and sites formed are also of smaller dimensions. The houses mostly belong to the owners of sites without proper interspacing. There is an acute congestion and the streets and conservancies, which too have been converted into lanes, are ill kept. If ethnicity is considered, Muslims and Hindus occupy the heart of this locality. In the outer periphery on the North western portion, however, a few good buildings have come up recently. In the western extremity is a overhead water tank. There are several huts in which Tamil immigrants and Muslims are found to be residing since several years. The A.K. Colony, the Bhovi Colony and the Tamillan Colony are also laid out according to plans. But these too suffer the inadequacies generally observed in the Gandhinagara Extension. The sites are of smaller dimensions and streets are narrow. The people residing in these colonies are very poor and the houses that have come up are built of cheap material. Mud-walled, Mangalore tiles houses are abundant in these colonies, which have quite a large number of vacant sites at present. Prior to the formation of A.K. Colony and Bhovi Colony during the mid-fifties, these two communities had their huts and katcha houses on the South-Eastern periphery of the town somewhat isolated from the rest of the urban community. The Tamilian colony too was formed by 1960 and prior to that most of them dwelt in slums near the Lakshmi Talkies and near the market yard. Most of the residents of the localities are unskilled manual workers. There are however, some masons, stone dressers, small scale contractors, petty shop-keepers, hawkers’ butchers and a few low paid employees of the government, municipality and other institutions and establishments in the town living in these areas. This entire area has come to be regarded as the abode of the economically and socially backward sections. (See Plated NO.2)
6. New Extension:
These residential areas were developed around and after 1970 as a result of population growth. Since 1921 every census period witnessed addition of 30 to 40% of population to this town. To accommodate this additional growth of population the following new extensions were developed.
Table No. 4.3
New Extension of Tiptur Town
|3||Shankarappa Layout||1980 onwards|
|5||Chamundeswari Extension||1985 onwards|
|6||Raghavendara Colony||1985 onwards|
|8||Shadakshara Mutt Extension||1985 onwards|
Source: Information gathered from Municipality.
All the above extensions (See Table No. 4.3) have grown in the westward direction from the core of the town. Vacant land is available but for a high price. Regarding B.H. Road, the establishment of Sharadanagar, Railway Station, Development of Educational Institutions, Hospitals and a number of government offices are the influencing factors for the growth of residential area in Tiptur. Remunerative price for chief agricultural products like Copra over the years, particularly since 1980, is one of the basic factors for rapid growth of residential areas of Tiptur. Improvement in water supply, bus service for many villages towards Arasikere, Hassan, Huliyar, and other directions; easy conversion of agricultural land into sites at a later period, are the main causes for the westward growth of the Tiptur town.
It is unfortunate that all new extensions are poorly planned and alienated by the authorities. Road are very narrow with a width of less than 30 feet. More roads are cut half way. They do not reach main roads in many new extensions. Narrowness of the streets also affects ventilation. Ventilation in the adjacent house is very poor and 95% of roads are still narrow. They are often with out metaling and asphalt. Conservancies have been encroached upon by the occupants. There is no proper drainage system and houses are congested in the Western part Vinayakanagara is the best example for this.
At present, residential areas in the new extensions exhibit a pathetic look of monotony coupled with greediness of the site owners who wants own a site at any cost or put up a concrete structure without urban planning norms. Even to a lack of civic sense and consequences of such development.
K.R. extension, which planned and established 60 years ago, is still unique in Tiptur town for its urban planning standards, where recently formed new extensions is have failed to match the same. Growth in science, technology, information technology and planning, should be accompanied by healthy settlements. Unfortunately, these new extensions are not suitable to lead a healthy urban life. Most of these are R.C.C. slums without commensurate or proportionate allocation of land for public utility services like parks and play grounds.
7. Residential Land Use in Slum Area:
Tiptur has grown into a commercial and an industrial town since the 1950’s. Particularly coconut based agro-industrial business has dominated the scene. Because of the employment opportunities in the town either in the APMC, commercial areas in bus and railway stations and coconut based industries there has been a considerable migration of poor into the town. People from Tamil Nadu came to work in the broom industry. People from Andhra Pradesh etc. too have landed up to work in the ever-growing town. As they are poor status of the migrants’ labourers has to the growth of slums in different parts particularly in the southern section, of Tiptur town. There are mainly eight groups of slums as can be seen from Figure NO. 4.3 Three are in Gandhinagara out of which one is in Dastagir Katte; the second one near Lakshmi Talkies and the third is Guruvappana Katte. The beginnings of Dastagir Katte slum areas back to the 1940s. Migrant Tamilans and Muslims have occupied the municipal land, this site in an unauthorizedly. It is situated in the western part of Gandhinagara near RRC Water tank and is much closed to Tiptur Keragodi Road. The drainage system here is very bad mainly because of its topography. The present residential area was earlier a small tank. Therefore, the outlet for wastewater is very small. The area is of full-congested houses. There is no laid out pipe water supply; no individual house taps; roads are very narrow; and some huts are with out connecting streets. It is one of the bad slums of the town. About 10 years ago, most of the hutments of this slum were burnt down in a fire accident when about 80% of houses were completely reduced to ash. Subsequently, the state government made an arrangement for the reconstruction of the houses with RCC roofs. Unfortunately, all the houses are in a bad condition and may come down any time because of low quality construction. The main activities of the inhabitants of this slum are building construction, manual labour in the market yard, petty business, auto driving and making agarbathis.
The second slum is found near Lakshmi talkies and it is also found its origin in the 1940s. It is located behind Lakshmi talkies at Gandhinagara at a distance of 50 yards form a Keragodi Road. It projects more or less towards the Dastagir Katte slum. As in the case of in the entire slum, there are only poor or absence of toilet facilities forcing people to use open ground as their toilets. Hence, people of this area can be seen virtually living in the midst of human waste.
The third Gandhinagara slum called Guruvappana Katte. Which it came into existence in the early 1960s. The base of this slum is in Ward No. 17. As Tamilians predominantly live in this slum. It is also called Tamilian’s Colony. A number of narrow roads are connected here to near by main road Rangapura Road. There is a metalled road, which passes close to this slum.
Fourthly, in the early 1940s some poor Hindu and Muslims started building their huts in Mavinathopu and gradually the number of huts have increased in this locality. A house survey was undertaken by the investigator to learn the housing pattern shows that at present (year 2000) there are 257 households in the locality. The site of this slum is a private land owned by G.K. Mallappa’s family, which is one of the richest families of the town.
The fifth, one is Neharu Nagara, beside the old tollgate on Turuvekere Road. It has come up in Ward No.1 and is in existence since 1962. It consists of families belonging to schedule castes and a few Muslums. This land is the property of Gudi Gowdaru and is illegally occupied.
The sixth slum has developed behind the General Hospital in Ward No. 11. Its origin goes to back early 1960s and has been growing since then. At present their rear 123 houses in this slum. The seventh slum of the town is located in Vinayakanagara near Muslim Burial Ground, which is also came up during the early 1980s. Most of the population consists of Muslims. The inhabitants are engaged in construction, manual laborers, housemaids, street hawkers, working in automobile workshops etc.
Finally in addition to these slums localities like Hippethopu, Indiranagara, Arasunagar, Siddlahalli Ashrama, Maranagere, also have small units of slum residential land use (See Figure No. 4.3).
8. Villages with in the Tiptur Town Limits:
Under residential land use of Tiptur town, there are villages whose residential limits lie within town. They are as follows:
1. Goragondanahalli to the South – East of the town on Y.T.Road
2. Maranagere to the South of the Town.
3. Kanchaghatta to the North – West of the Town
4. Hosapalya to the North of the Town
5. Annapura to the North of the Town
6. Halepalya to the North of the Town
After the expansion of the town in 1996 the above villages have been included in the town municipal limits. The houses in these villages (Figure No. 4.4) have still retained their rural look. Tiled houses are common and constitute a more than half the houses. Rests of the houses are thatched and sheets, RCC constructions are rarely to be found. In these former villages urban planning is yet to consolidate in terms of land use development. Roads are still narrow. Town water supply has not reached all the villages within the municipal limits. Agriculture is still the main activity. Manual labourers farm labourers. Some engages in animal husbandry can be seen some people also work in factories. Halepalya, Hosapalya and Annapura villages have a large number of power and handlooms. Details about the Industry are discussed later.
Type of Residences Based on Floor Area:
In the present study of Residential land use of Tiptur town, data regarding built up floor are has been collected and analysed.
On the basis of floor area occupied residences can be categorized into 6 main groups. They are:
1. Aristocratic Houses
2. Upper Class Houses
3. Upper Middle Class Houses
4. Lower Middle Class Houses
5. Low Income Group Houses Slums.
1) Residences of Aristocrats: Old mansion like big houses and modern bungalows fall into this category. Such residences have open garden and wide compound. Floor area of 30 sq. ft. And above (1 square= 10’X10’). These upper class houses are found on the western side of the Railway Station Road; K.S. compound Shadakshara Mutt Layout, Shankarappa Layout and also in K.R. Extension. These upper class bungalows are very few in number owned by big copra merchants and industrialists.
2) Upper Class: Huge RCC constructions with a floor area of 20-30 sq. ft. Floor area belong to this category. Such houses have good ventilation, parking area and a small garden. In number, these upper class houses are more than high upper class houses. Distribution of such houses can be seen on the Eastern-side of Railway Station Road, Pete area, Vinayakanagara, Eastern side of Saibaba Road (Shankarappa Garden) K.R. Extension, Shankarappa Layout and Annapura Extension. Copra merchants, Doctors, Industrialists, Merchants, owners of big coconut garden live in these big and well built houses.
3) Upper Middle Class: Residential buildings with 15 to 20 sq.ft. floor area, one or two story construction with parking facility, sophisticated buildings with balcony for the main features of this group. Such houses are seen all over the town except in some areas. Upper Middle class houses are distributed in Basaveshwaranagar, K.R. Extension, Shankarappa Layout, Vinayakanagara, Pete area, South and eastern side of Kote area. Professionals such as Engineer, Doctors, retire high officials and merchants are own such houses.
4) Lower Middle class: These houses have a floor area of 10 to 15 sq. ft. Vast majority of the houses in Tiptur are of this category. The Indial middle has an innate desire to own a house. But often their economic conditions are such that they construct house with minimum requirements. These houses have a hall, two bedrooms, a kitchen and a toilet. Such houses are found in Basaveshwaranagar and North central port of Gandhinagara, Kote, Pere, Vinayakanagara, K.R. Extension, Sharadanagar, Vidyanagar, Shadakshara Mutt Layout, Annapura near Tiptur Tank and Govinapura. Class-II and III government employees, middle class merchants, landowners, teachers and Loom owners of Halepalya own or reside in such houses. Houses with a floor area of 5-10 sq. ft. Also come under this category. Such houses have roofing materials like tiles, RCC, thatched material and asbestos sheets. These can be seen in the oldest parts of the town like Kote, Pete, Gandhinagara, Chamudeshwari Extension, Basaveshwaranagar, K.R. Extension, Govinapura, Vidyanagar and Sharadanagar. After the expansion of the town limit eight villages have merged with the town. Residents of such houses are primary school teachers, Clerks, petty businessmen, contractors, and marginal farmers of Halepalya, Hosapalya and Annapura.
5) Lower Income Group: Houses with 3 to 5 sq. ft. floor area can be called lower income group houses. Such houses are distributed on the outskirts of the town. Because of the poor economic conditions, the villagers cannot afford a site in the heart of the town. Hence they are found in Southern end of Gandhinagare, Indiranagara, Maranagere, Kanchaghatta and Halepalya. People who live in Hosapalya and Annapura usually who are small landholers around the town, agricultural labourers, manual labourers(Kooli), housemaids and labourers engaged in construction work. These houses are built very close to each other reminding a slum area.
6) Slum Houses: In real terms these are not houses. They have thatches roofs, and tiles in some cases to give protection from sun and rain. Other basic facilities are not found in these houses. Such houses are distributed over Guruvappa Katte, Mavinathopu Dastagir Katte, behind laxmi talkies, behind General Hospital and the south – western part of Vinayakanagara. The details about slums have already been discussed. (See Figure No. 4.5)
COMMERCIAL LAND USE:
One of the common and major land uses under the urban settlement is the land put to trade and commerce. However it is not as high as say public utilities and never equal to residential land use. Land use under commercial uses in a small town may be a major street and a few shops scattered in the town. But in big cities, it has a definite zonal pattern and is called Central Business District (CBD). In the cities major arterial roads and streets do show the concentration of trade and commerce of various sorts. Often very big cities have some outlying business areas / districts (Multiple Nuclei theory of Ullaman and Harris).
The present study of Tiptur town has the land put to commercial and its related uses. Often this growth is seen around a market place in a locality where weekly markets (shoulders) are held. This commercial activity is chiefly responsible for the birth and growth of the town.
Tiptur town has 46.39 hectares of commercial land use accounting for 10.43% of the total land use in the developing area. A perusal of the map shows that there is one unique commercial area on the southeastern outskirts of the town. Besides, there is a string like construction of commercial establishments on either side of the B.H. road. The same pattern of constructions can be also observed in Dodda Pete Road, Santhepete Road, Hosapete Road to some extent along the Railway Station Road, Kote circle and near Ganesha Theater. In the predominantly residential localities such as the Krishna Rajendra Extension and Gandhinagara as well as in certain other streets. There are a few isolated retail shops, which mostly deal in consumer goods on a small scale.
The commercial land use of these areas is of a general natural consisting of provision shop, Hardware, Medical and other usual shops. In fact these shops have appeared in response to the need of the town and the dependent population coming from Tiptur town hinterland.
APMC presents a picture of the trade related to wholesale trade in copra, coconuts, jaggery, rice, oil seeds, Horsegram, Bengalgram and seegu (broom stick) is confined to the Regulated Market Yard since 1961. This marker is situated in the South East of the town. It joins the west of the Y.T. Road, South of Tiptur Banalore-Railway tracks east of Gandhinagara. The total geographical are acquired for the purpose of establishing this market yard being 61 acres and 2 guntas there were 112 godowns of traders by the end of 1971 besides the offices for the marketing committee. The commodities that are sold by open auction system are copra, coconut and seegu. The remaining notified commodities are sold by mutual negotiations.
Commercial Land Use along B.H. Road:
Tiptur town being a class three town situated along a major highway has sizeable commercial land use along this road. The B.H. road runs across the town for about 6 kilometers after a short distance it enters the town limits that from the East, At the Neelakantaswamy Circle it is joined by the Y.T. road. This circle has a few retail shops and a restaurant besides a small industrial establishment and presents a commercial look. From this circle the B.H. Road proceeds besides the tank for about 1.5 kms till it meets the Doddapete in front of the taluk office compound and the vegetable market compound. The buildings in this span of distance are rather sparse, especially on the northern side. There are a few shops, carpenters’ workshops, restaurants, a cinema theatre, 3 temples and hostel. Narrow lanes, at some points, lead from B.H. Road into Doddapete Road, Commercial establishments such as shops, lodges, bars, tailoring shops, Jewellery shops etc., have come up in these lanes. The B.H. Road, form this point upto and slightly beyond the municipal bus stand, is the busiest part of the town. The shopkeepers of this area sell consumer goods, luxury and common goods. One of the posh restaurants of the town is also located here. The commercial establishments occupy the front portion of buildings on either side of the road and are adjacent to each other. Building activity is going on in this area for the past forty years and modern R.C.C. buildings each of which can accommodate more than one commercial establishment have replaced several of the old structures. Beyond the bus stand too, there are groups of shops. But these have sprung up sporadically and do not form a continuous spread. From bus stand to Thrimurthy theatre and little further, business complexes are established. For example Allammatti Complex, G.K. Mallappa Complex, Linganna complex, anjuman Complex etc. All of these complexes are developed from the past 15 years. General stores, book shops, medical shops, automobile shops, hotels, automobiles work shops, parlors, STD booths and Clinics are the important kind of shops on the Southern side of the B.H. Road. On the Northern side of the B.H. Road form bus stand to Saibaba Road permanent commercial buildings are constructed. General and provision stores, medical shops, bars, clinics, tube well material stores, coffee processors, hotels and fancy goods shops have opened from the last 5 years from Hassan circle. Further commercial shops have developed on both sides of the B.H. Highway. At a short distance hotel, provision stores, tea shops, generals store bakery, petrol bunk, vehicle dealers, Xerox shops, cyber center and clinics are the main shops form the business land use part on B.H. Road. (See Figure No. 4.1)
Commercial Land Use in Old Town:
Doddapere, as the name suggests is the main commercial area, which, in recent years is slowly losing its ground. At presents right in front of the jail compound, on either side of this Doddapete road, the vegetable market is situated. Beyond these mall strip of land to the east, there are a number of wholesale and retail cloth merchants, dealers in fertilizers, books and stationery, drugs and pharmaceuticals, silver ornaments, etc. on either side for a distance of about 1.5 kms. The Hosapete road and the Santherpete Road, which too are commercial areas, join the Doddapere road. there is a heavy concentration of cloth shops in Doddapete road while on Santhepete and Hospete roads mostly other consumer articles are sold. Santhepete happens to be the oldest commercial area of Tiptur and the survival of names such as akki asare(area earmarked for sale of rich and other food grains), bellada asare (jaggery market), balehannina asare(plantain marker), madake asare(pottery market), Kambali asare(coarse woolen rug marker) and so on indicate the degree of specialization that had been achieved in these commercial areas. Even now the wholesale merchants in food grains, vegetable oils, vanaspati, and other edible and non-edible commodities are concentrated in Santhepete and the adjacent street of Hosapete. A couple of private truck agencies have their offices in this area. However, these streets too cannot be regarded as exclusively houses. This road side linear market zone witnesses concentration of a farmers’ residential area and during the past 5-6 years, some of the old residential houses have been completely renovated and a few new and modern houses have come up. But the portion of Santhepete road towards railway crossing (i.e. south) is predominantly commercial and continues to retain its traditional characteristic features.
Commercial Land Use in Old Extensions:
In Gandhinagara along the Keragodi road there are a few small retail shops beside the mutton market. Likewise, in Krishna Rajendra Extension also there are a few retail shops located in different streets. Similarly in Halkurke Road, Y.T. Road, Rangapura Road and Honnavalli Road. These shops in due course may become the nucleus for the development of small but important commercial pockets and cater to the essential needs of the neighbouhood.
Commercial Land Use in the Village Part of the Town:
Commercial land use can be seen in village within the town limits. This part is covered predominantly by petty shops. In adjoining villages like Halepalya, Hosapalya and Annapura, there are many provision stores, petty shops, teashops, mutton stalls, hotels and some general shops.
Tiptur town gained its fame because of the rise and growth of dry coconut/copra trade over the years. This is a commercial town basically, and of administrative and educational importance subsequently, where the latter owe their existence to the growth of the copra trade. Hence the need to elaborate on the origin and growth of copra trade in the town, which provides a greater insight into its commercial land use.
The fact that Tiptur witnessed commercial activities even prior to 1850 is chiefly because of its central location. People around the town were active in trade and commerce in Tipur market. Some of the events that took place after 1850, who responsible for rapid growth of trade and commerce of Tiptur. They are:
Formation of B.H. Road:
For five decades since 1831, the British colonialists built on excellent system of trunk roads all over the country. All roads lead from interiors to the ports or coastal areas. These roads were oriented to transportation of minerals and goods from India to Europe. With the same purpose Bangalore-Honnavar Road built. Secondly, farmers of neighbouring villages situated along the B.H. Road started using this great opportunity to bring their agricultural products to Tiptur marker. Thirdly, the huge quantity of market products that were entering the Tiptur market from Bangalore through B.H. Road, needed a central place for distribution. Tiptur became one such central place. Fourthly, B.H. Road created an opportunity to the traders to transport coconut, dry copra and coconut broom sticks to various parts of North India in the Subsequent years.
A change in administration is an important cause in the growth of trade and commerce of Tiptur. During the British reign, Honnavalli was the taluk Head Quarters and Tiptur a Hobli. In 1886, Tiptur became the taluk Head quarter of Tiptur and Turuvekere which was transferred from Kadaba Taluk on the eastern side of the Tiptur. These changes may be attributed to its location on the trunk road and also its central location with reference to Turuvekere. After the shifting of the taluk head quarters significant changes in population have also taken place which is immigration of officials, transport operators, labourers, traders and wealthy peasants. With rise in the population of in the town, there was growing demand for goods and services. In fact, they together increased trade and commerce first in Doddapete and Santhapete and later in other areas of the town.
Another significant in the history of Tiptur is the opening event of Bangalore-Harihar railaway line in 1889, which passes through Tiptur. The railway enabled a number of villages and towns in south Karnataka were connected with Tiptur commercially. Further, Bangalore-Harihar railaway line was extended upto Miraj. Thus a remarkable change was brought about by the railways in this part of erstwhile princely state of Mysore. Hence, Tiptur got railway connection beyond the state boundary. To fulfill the huge and continuous demand for dry coconut of Tiptur in Northern India, an easy, quick and cheaper means transport system was needed. The Bangalore-Miraj Railway extension came as a boon to the dry copra trade. In those days of limited road transportation which was not only convenient but also uneconomical, this Railway route gave a push to the dry coconut and broom – sticks (sticks of coconut leaves) trade, in the mean time , Railway connection with Bangalore helped to expand its trade links within the state and the capital of former Mysore State. In addition to this, the railway also helped in the import of gunny (jute) bags, required for copra packing, from West Bengal via Madras and Bangalore.
Yet another important development that was responsible for the growth of trade and commerce is the establishment of Agricultural Produce Market Committee (A.P.M.C.) according to A.P.M.C. official Mr. Sayed Hafiz for the first time in the history of Karnataka in 1948, this A.P.M.C. regulated market was formed in Tiptur.
Commercial Activities in A.P.M.C.
It has already been stated that the regulated market was established in Tiptur in 1948. In its infancy A.P.M.C. was regulating its trade from Ramamandir Road, Shankar Road and Pete area, which form the core part of the present town. In 1961 it was shifted to the present location.
After the formation of A.P.M.C., trade and commerce of the town took a new direction. Its copra gathering wings spread to Tumkur, Hassan, Chitraduraga, Mandya and Mysore districts. These leads to the best quality of dry coconut from this famous town reach the entire country. At the same time the brooms made out of this Kalpavriksha(multi utility plant), started cleaning the houses in different parts of the country. Within a few years Tiptur rose to be a shining star on the copra trade map of the country.
Since its beginning in 1980, drilling of Tube wells has been rapidly expanding till today. Due to increased irrigation by tube wells, both production and expansion of coconut have been processing in Tiptur taluk (See Table No.4.4 and Plate No.3).
Area under Coconut Cultivation in Tiptur Taluk
|Year||Cultivation Area in Tiptur Rural Taluk(in hectares)|
Source: Taluk Crop Abstract (Taluk Office Record)
Similarly other taluks like Gubbi Chikkanayakanahalli, Turuvekere, Hosadurga, Arasikere, Cannarayanapatna, Holalkere, Kadur etc. have also increased their coconut cultivation and production. The increased production not only helped the farmers, but also development of A.P.M.C. In another way, it also helped the growth of wholesale trade and commerce of Tiptur. This is evident from the fact that about 70% of the dry coconut of Karnataka is distributed through the Tiptur market only.
In the 1990’s the Southern taluks of Tiptur like Cannarayanapatna, Turuvekere, Nagamangla, Kunigal and Eastern taluks like Gubbi and Tumkur got irrigated by Hemavathy water. It also resulted in the increased production of coconut and copra trade in the A.P.M.C. Since Tiptur A.P.M.C. is the biggest market for dry copra in Kaenataka, the surrounding taluks are dependent on Tiptur A.P.M.C. Thus Hemavathy project helped A.P.M.C. of Tiptur indirectly.
The fact that Tiptur is centrally located in the coconut growing area has strengtherned the commercial land use in the town. Besides this, nodal location the B.H. road and the Bangalore-Miraj Broad gauge railway line have significantly contributed to the development of Tiptur as a commercial town. In fact this land use is getting intensified along B.H. Road, towards A.P.M.C. and railway station road.
Special Role of APMC in Commercial Land Use:
The development of commercial land use in Tiptur can be seen from the establishment of A.P.M.C. a landmark in the Tiptur town. A.P.M.C. has good infrastructure like wide roads with well developed drains, streetlights, drinking water facilities, staff quarters, post office, banks, bidding plat-forms, cattle shed, toilets, weigh-bridges, transport operators, hotels, godowns, park, police-station, community bath rooms, etc. Recently a big and beautiful Raita Bhavan (retiring rooms for a farmer has been constructed with good facilities, at a cost of Rs.73, 81,899. At present (200-2001) 265 commission agencies and 128 exporters are operating in the marker. Tiptur A.P.M.C. is also regulating other operations with five sub markers at Konehalli, Karadalu, Nonavinakere, Honnavali, and Kibbanahalli.
The most important source of income to the A.P.M.C. is cess. One percent of the amount of trade transacted is collected by A.P.M.C. as tax towards its maintenance. This is a huge amount according to A.P.M.C. report as on 31-07-2000-01. The income thus earned and deposited in various financial institutions amounted to Rs.8, 02, 32,261-68. The following table shows the income of A.P.M.C. from 1993-2000.
Annual Income of APMC, Tiptur
|Year||Rs. in Crores|
Source: Data collected from A.P.M.C. Report 2000-01
A.P.M.C. Tiptur is economically very sound. Some part of the income is spent towards the development of workers, maintenance of the A.P.M.C. and development of its sub markets in different parts of the taluk. It is also engaged in some social work. The following table shows the work taken and completed by the A.P.M.C.
Table No. 4.6
Major Developmental Works Undertaken by APMC – Tiptur
|Sl NO||Purpose||Money spent in Rs||%|
|1||Conctruction and equipment of Raita Bhavan||7381899||15.02|
|2||Construction work in market and sub market yards||33400000||67.98|
|3||Donation to the Chief Minister’s Medical Relief Fund||4750000||9.67|
|4||Under Raita Sanjeeviny accidental Insurance||265500||0.55|
|5||To help the farmers to bring their products to the market connecting roads have been formed in the taluk (1995-96)||1633025||3.32|
|6||For the same purpose in 1996-97||11,50,00,||2.34|
|7||Special Insurance for labourers and weighers||550000||1.12|
Source: Data collected from A.P.M.C. Report 2000-01
A.P.M.C. of Tiptur has got a very wide copra collecting hinter land which is distributed in Tumkur, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Chikamagalur, Hassan, Mandya and Mysore Districts and farmers come to Tiptur, to sell their copra. The following table shows the quantity of copra that arrived at the A.P.M.C. of Tiptur from 1989-2000
Table No. 4.7
Annual Arrival of copra (Dry Cocount Kernael) to APMC Tiptur
|Year||Incoming copra at A.P.M.C. Tiptur( in quintals)|
Source: Data collected from A.P.M.C. Report 2000-01
From this study, it has come to light, that, A.P.M.C. has its own influence and imprints on the Trade and Commerce of Tiptur town not only but also its varied land uses, because it is a major commercial acting of this town.
Bank Area under Commercial Land use:
There is a number of commercial Bank and other financial institutions established over the years in the Tiptur. Apart from banks, the financial institutions lend money to most of the copra commission agents of the A.P.M.C. In turn, they advance the same to the farmers. But from 1980s and 1990s the volume of this type of private financing is on the decline. As a result of this change, many new private financial firms have entered the scene from the early 1990s. At present in the town there are 23(1990-2000) private finance centres actively financing.
Coming to the location of banks, most of them are on B.H. Road, Pete area, Railway station Road, APMC yard and K.R. Extension. It can be seen in the table below which shows the distribution of distribution of banks with in the town’s limits of Tiptur in 2000-2001.
Table No 4.8
Distribution of Bank and Financial Institutions in Tiptur Town 2000-01
|Sl No.||Name of Bank||Location|
|1||State Bank of India|
|2||The Vysya Bank Ltd.,|
|6||City Union Bank|
|7||Veerashiva Co-operative Bank|
|8||Kalpataru Gramina Bank|
|9||State Bank of Mysore|
|10||Karnataka Bank (E.C)|
|11||The Vysya Bank Ltd (E.C)|
|12||State Bank of Mysore||Railway Station Road|
|13||Vijaya Bank||Railway Station Road|
|14||T.G.M.C. Bank||Railway Station Road|
|15||P.L.D. Bank||A.P.M.C Yard|
|16||The Vysya Bank Ltd (E.C)||A.P.M.C Yard|
|17||Tumkur District Co-operative Bank||Steel Tank Road|
|18||Merchants Co-operative Bank||Doddapete|
Source: Data compiled by field study.
The arterial road passing through the middle of the town, called B.H. Road dominates in commercial land use of the town. There is a similarity in the distribution of banks also more than 50% of the town’s banks are located on B.H. Road. From Aralikatte Circle to Kalpatharu College campus, banks are concentrated on Railway Station Road, Nijalingappa Road is preferred next as there are banks, A.P.M.C. has two banks, Pete area is also served by two banks. The high accessibility of the area is a major reason for this high concentration of financial institutions in this zone.[See Figure No.4.6]
Private Financial institutions are distributed all over the town and about 23 centres are functioning at present in the town.
|1. Assistant Conservator of Forest office||21. Travelers Bungalow|
|2. Assistant Director of Sericulture Office||22. Sub-divisional Medical Office|
|3. Office of the Department of Industry and Commerce||23. Block Education Office|
|4. Assistant Director of Agriculture Office||24. Office of the K.P.T.C.L.|
|5. Office of the Assistant Commissioner of Commercial Taxes||25. Superintendent of Excise Office|
|6. Assistant Director of Horticulture Office||26. Zilla Panchayat Office|
|7. Office of the Assistant Executive Engineer Zilla Panchayat||27. Offices of Wight and Measures|
|8. Assistant Director of Land Records Office||28. Office of the Medical Officer.|
|9. Office of the Social Forestry||29. Town Police Station|
|10. Munsiff Magistrate Court||30. Head Post Office|
|11. Thalsildar, Treasury, Exercise, Doordarshan Office||31. Telephone Exchange Office|
|12. L.I.C Of India Office||32. C.D.P.O Office|
|13. Assistant Director of Fisheries Office||33. Assistant Director of Veterinary Office|
|14. Office of the Deputy Superintendent of Police||34. District Cooperative Office|
|15. Assistant Executive Engineer PWD. Office||35. A.P.M.C. Office|
|16. Assistant Commissioner Office||36. Rural Police Station|
|17. Sub-Registrar Office||37. Town Municipality Office|
|18. Office of the Assistant Engineer, K.P.T.C.L.||38. Coir Board|
|19. Taluk Social Welfare Office||39. Handloom Corporation Office|
|20. Office of the Fire Brigade|
|1. The Vaisya Bank Ltd (E.C)||10. Mysore Bank|
|2. State Bank of Mysore||11. Syndicate Bank|
|3. Karnataka Bank (E.C)||12. Vaisya Bank|
|4. Cauvery Grameena Bank||13. Karnataka Bank|
|5. Veerashiva Co-operative Bank||14. State Bank of India|
|6. City Union Bank||15. Tumkur District Co-operative Bank|
|7. Canara Bank||16. Merchants Co-operative Bank|
|8. Vijaya Bank||17. P.L.D. Bank|
|9. T.G.M.C. Bank||18. Vaisya Bank (E.C)|
INDUSTRIAL LAND USE:
Origin and growth of any town depends on some important factors like trade and commerce, educational institutions and industries. For example: Wadi, Khetki, Durgapur, Jamshedpur, Rurkela, Bhadravathi, Kolar Gold Fild (K.G.F.) s etc. owe their origin and growth to industries. These urban areas have developed due to the development and influence of industries. No such development has taken place in Tiptur town, but industrial influence in the development of this town, although meager, can be seen, industrial development in the town is also an important type of land use, which needs some attention and study.
Tiptur town industrial land use accounts for 11.62 hectares occupying 02.58% of developed area. Major industries of Tiptur town are based on coconut. Coir, dehydrated coconut powder, rope, oil and mattress industries are some of these. They form the main types of industries in the town. Even saw mills have also developed. Another special feature of industries in Tiptur is the textiles – loams industry is concentrated in and around Halepalya, Hosapalya, Annapura, and Gayathrinagar areas of Tiptur town (See Figure No. 4.6). Loom industry has developed in above areas of the town. Without locally available raw materials or market for these products. Above villages within the town limit have contributes wonderful achievements in the development of loom industry. They get all raw materials from other places like Bangalore and produce sarees and cloth. They have also specialized themselves in the manufacturing of bandage cloth. Hence specially much of this industrial land use in the northern section of the town can be seen.
To understand the industrial land use of Tiptur town it can be divided in to three parts. They are
1. Southern town
2. Central town
3. Northern town (See Figure No. 4.7
Southern Tiptur and its Industrial Scenario:
This includes Bandihalli, Goragondanahalli, Basaveshwaranagar, Arasunagar, Bovi Colony, A.K. Colony, Tamil Colony, Gurappanakatte, Chamudeshwarinagar, Indiranagar, Datagirkatte, Karibasappa Colony, Hippethopu, Maranagere and Sharadhanagar. These are located on the southern side of Bangalore Miraj railway track. This railway track is considered as a demarking line and this section of the Southern town consists of Ward No. 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 27.
Southern Tiptur has a good number of small scale and cottage industries and few medium scale industries. Keregodi road has an industrial concentration in this part of the town. Both sides of this road are dotted with a number of small industries. Three medium scales, dehydrated coconut powder producing factories are also located viz. Shiva Coconut industries, Asha Coconut industries and Akram Coconut industries. Rests are small scale industries. There are three sawmills on Keregodi road. Wood plaining of mills is about eight in number. A brick industry and six Engineering industries also exist here.
A little distance towards the south of the Keregodi road, two, one is Kalpatharu Coconut industries and Reunka Industries both medium scale dehydrated coconut powder factories are located. Two other coconut powder factories are in the southern town one located on Rangapura road and the other on Y.T. Road.
Other important industries of this part of the town are agro – based industries like tamarind seed processing industries near Lakshmi Talikes, an oil mill behind the APMC market. Adjacent to this is a Gram processing industry.
Rest of the industries is spread over different parts of Southern Tiptur where there are totally seven brick industries and ten oil mills (of which two are medium scale industries). There are eight flour mills, three cold strategies, eight furniture factories, twelve loom, thirteen packing industries, nine engineering industries, two puffed rice and a number of Agarbathi units are located. Beedi rollings, and turmeric processing home industries have also come up in recent years. In the western part of the southern town on agricultural equipment and two flourmills are established in Maranagere. There is a medium scale dehydrated coconut powder making factory on Hassan Road in the same part of the town. (See Figure No.4.8)
Central Town And its industrial Scenario:
Central Tiptur town is confined to railway line in the south, B.H. Road in the centre, and Tiptur tank and its rain water feeding canal up to the western municipal boundary in the North. East to West, it has Ward Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 26 respectively. Length wise the extensions which come under these jurisdiction they are Bandihalli, Kote, Pete, Bus stand, Mavinathopu, Vinayakanagara, Shankarappa Garden, K.R. Extension Shanakarappa Layout Govinapura Housing Board Colony, Vidyanagar, Shadakshara Mutt Layout and Kanchagatta (See Figure No.4.7). The length of the central Tiptur town is about 6.8 kilometers from East to West. Central town industrial land uses are in two parts. 1. along B.H. Road, 2. Other parts of central town.
(A) B.H. ROAD:
It has already been mentioned that the longest and most important road in the town. Is B.H. Road on which are located some industries. B.H. Road starts at the entrance of Tiptur town limits from Bangalore. No one who enters the town from the eastern section of it can miss the prominent small scale industrial estate. (See Plate No.4) This industrial estate is home to a drip irrigation system manufacturing unit, two coir industries, a Tractor trailer manufacturing unit and workshop a plastic pipe factory. A condiment factory, a cotton processing factory, an oil mill, an engineering workshop, two flour mills, an electrical works and two tyre works. All these are small scale units. A little further, towards the town on the southern side of the road a large scale mattress manufacturing factory called Anand Comforts has been recently established. Near Eedenahalli gate on B.H. Road there is a saw mill. Next to this near Ganesh theatre on both sides of the road there are 13 automobile related workshops, three engineering industries, a wood plaining, two boiler manufacturing factories also can be seen. Towards Aralikatte Circle there are some factories. There are two wood plaining units, two cupboard manufacturing units and a coffee powder unit working at present. From Aralikatte, to bus stand is a busy business locality and, therefore, no industrial units are established. However, a little inside the B.H. Road a few puri bhattis (puffed rice) are found. Near the bus stand, along B.H. Road, a lather workshop, and two vehicle repair and service stations are located. There are also three engineering industries. After bus stand, towards Arasikere and till travelers’ bungalow, there is a concentration of some small scale industries. There is a high concentration of 21 automobile related industries in this part of the town. It is because of the high frequency of vehicles along the road which has become a center for automobile repairs. Besides these, there is an agricultural equipment industry and three Engineering industries.
From the travelers’ bungalow to Hassan gate is an office and educational institutions. From Hassan gate and further, some small industries are established. There are four agricultural equipment and one Automobile related Industry in this central western part of the town.
(B) Other parts of Central Town:
This area is further divided (A) central south – town between B.H. Road and railway line where Ward Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 15, and 11, are situated. This is a residential area for which reason industries are less in number. Some industries can be seen a beginning of Kodi Circle. There is a sawmill. A little distance away from the sawmill, there is a coconut dehydrated powder industry. After crossing Y.T. road from east two engineering industries are located near Kote entrance. From Veterinary Hospital Road to Railway Station Road, there are five oil mills. Over the years their concentration is more in Pete area due to the import of palm oil
Indian oil industries are sick at present. This small towns also 12 hrs printing presses, one ice factory, 9 furniture industries and 15 engineering industries between Veterinary Hospital Road and Railway Station Road. In the south central town forms Railway Station Road to Tiptur-Hassan Road and further up to the end of the municipal boundary (Ward Nos. 6, 12, 11, and 15) residential, garden, vacant land, offices dominate the nature of land use than industrial land uses. Only one dehydrated coconut powder industry is located near Mavinathopu.
Central North Tiptur is situated between B.H. Road and the tank and its intermittent stream course. It includes Ward Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 26. Regarding Ward No. 6 all industries have been explained under B.H. Road area. But in Ward No.7 there are two flourmills, one Engineering industry, two Auto workshops and two printing presses. In Ward Nos. 8 and 9, two engineering industries and three flourmills are working. Ward Nos. 10, 11 and 26 again are residential and educational area. Hence the industrial land use is poor. However, only two Flour mills are here. In Ward No. 26 a Government coir and rope industry is located near Shadakshara mutt. (See Figure No.4.8)
Industrial Scenario of Northern Tiptur Town:
The Northern part of Tiptur is a landmark in the industrial land uses. The rainfed water canal runs in the Northern part of Tiptur tank. Areas like Halepalya, Hosapalya, Gaythrinagar and Annapura, which in Ward Nos. 23, 24 and 25 from the parts of Northern Tiptur. This part is a major landmark in the industrial land use because(power) looms operate in a large number of houses. There are 1112 households here out of which 47.6% have looms. There is no favourable or encouraging factor locally for the development of loom industries. Raw material is not available. For raw material and marketing they are dependent on Bangalore, which is 141 kms. From Tiptur. It is sheer professionalism and will power of the Devanga community, a hardworking community that have lead to the growth of loom industry.
Bedsy Mattress Factory, which produces foam – coir for cushion purpose is the biggest industry of the town. It is located on Tiptur Halkurike Road in Annapura. It is the only factory which works on electric power with a capacity of 150 H.P. There are also two dehydrated coconut factories, three butta factory a coir industry, a saw mill, two oil mills an agriculture equipment factory, and six engineering workshops. As pointed out earlier, textile looms from the important industry of Northern Tiptur. Most of the looms of located inside the households. Some houses have one or two looms. Some are handlooms while the others are power looms. They mainly produce Sarees, bandage cloth, curtain cloth, packing cloth and dress materials. (See Figure No.4.8)
To investigate the number of industries in the town, data has been collected from Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (K.P.T.C.L.), office in Tiptur. Accordingly following Table has been prepared.
Table No. 4.9
Industries in Tiptur Town (1999-2000)
|Power Capacity||No. of Industries|
|1) More than 100 H.P.||2|
|2) Above 40 H.P.|
|a) Northern part of the town (Halepalya areas)||10|
|b) Southern Town (Gandhinagar area)||7|
|c) Central Town||10|
|3) 1 to 40 H.P.|
|a) Northern part of the town (Halepalya areas)||476|
|b) Southern Town (Gandhinagar area)||153|
|c) Central Town||68|
Sources: Data collected from K.P.T.C.L.
PUBLIC UTILITY LAND USE IN TIPTUR TOWN:
Public places or the public utility centers have been the most attractive parts of all the towns since ancient period. A large number of the towns, big or small, have their own public utility places. For example, temples, Churches, Mosques, Schools, play grounds; parks etc. are the public utility land uses which are centres of attraction. Development of public utility land use in any town is influenced by geographical conditions, cultural attainments and to some extent, its economic status. These are also often gifts to the citizens from their rulers and town planning organizations of the town, (for example Cubbon park, Lalbhag and Vidhana Soudha in Bangalore). Tiptur has its own public utility places where, about 15.07% land area of the developed part of the town is under the use of public utility services (See Figure No.4.1)/ This land use can be studied under the following headings:
1. Educational institutions
2. Temples, Churches and Mosques and places meant for praying
3. Mutts and hostels
4. Public offices or administrative areas
5. Parks and play grounds
6. Recreational area and community halls
7. Health facilities
8. Transportation land use
9. Burial grounds
Land Use for Education:
Tiptur is one of the well-known towns in Karnataka for education. Since 1962, Kalpatharu Vidya Samasthe (Kalpatharu Educational Institutions) is serving the society from Montessori to collegiate educational with courses in Arts, Science, Commerce and Engineering.
Apart from this educational giant, which is located beside B.H. Road in the western part of the town, there are a number of pre-primary schools (L.K.G. U.K.G) and baby sitting (Anshes) centers in the town. Fourteen lower primary schools and fifteen higher primary schools are spread over the town. High schools are eleven in number. There are eight pre-university colleges, an industrial training institute, a polytechnic and a college offering Diploma courses. Three Degree colleges and an engineering college have been developed over the years in the town. These large numbers of educational institutions have been striving to promote the course of education in the society. It is the economic prosperity ushered in by copra and its related trade that have given a great impetus to the growth of a variety of good educational institutions in the town.
Land use for the educational institutions is spread throughout Tiptur town, in a scattered manner. The extent of educational land use is more in the western part of the central town which may be attributed mainly to the open plain land. There are primary and secondary educational institutions. Southern and Northern parts of the town have few educational institutions where primary and middle schools predominate rather than higher educational institutions.
In the Central town (between Railway line and Tiptur tank) from east to the west first educational institution is Vinuthana high school beside Ganesh theatre. Beside this Vinuthana high school, Saint Marry’s Lower primary school is located.
In the Kote area beside Y.T.Road, Kote Model Higher Primary Schools is located. Near Nilakanta Swamy Circle, another Deenadayalu Higher Primary School can be seen. Further towards Pete and up to Railway Station Road three high schools (Padma, S.V.P and Sumathi) seven higher primary school and a pre-university college (S.V.P) are situated. Form the Railway Station Road end, along the Halkurike Road there are three lower primary schools; three higher primary schools; two high schools; two pre-university colleges; a T.C.H. and two computer education centers are located. From Halkurike Road to end of the central town, towards the west, is the central place for the education. It is part of the town which made Tiptur one of the popular educational towns in the state. Beside (west) Halkurike Road opposite K.P.T.C.L., in Maranagere survery No. 155, Government Model Higher Primary School is located near the Housing Board colony. This institution runs a few training couses such as nursing, surveying Lab technician etc. there is a stadium in the Western side of the Government Model Middle School. Next to the stadium in the western side in Maranagere survey No. 152, Government Boys high school and Government Boys pre-university college function in the same building. The first high school of Tiptur taluk, this school was established in the pre-independence period (1922). Behind Government pre-university colleges and beyond its playground in Kanchaghatta Survey No. 36 Tagore Higher Primary School and High School are established. Beside the Tagore High School Balaji Nursery Lower Primary and Higher Primary School have been established recently in the Housing Board colony. There is a nursery and lower primary school in Shadakshara Mutt in Kanchaghatta Survey no. 39. About half a Km from Shadakshara Mutt there is a government lower primary and higher primary school in Ward No. 26.
There is a need for special reference about Kalpatharu institutions. Since 1962 Kalpatharu Vidya Samasthe is serving the people of Tiptur and other to a great extent taluks. After the opening of kalpatharu Institute of Technology its Teachnical education service has spread to other parts of the country. According to the present study Kalpatharu Vidya Samasthe (educational institutions) [See Plate No.5] and its allied educational institutions are located in the Maranagere survey Nos. 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33. Kalpatharu Science College is located in Survey No. 33 and 32, Pallagatti Advappa Arts and Commerce College is situated at Survey No. 33 and Kalpatharu Institute of Technology is in Survey No. 29 and 30. Recently (year 2000) Kalpatharu Educational institute has started Montessori classes under Nursery School in the same campus. This institution imparts education in Arts, Science and Commerce courses both for Pre-university and degree students. Kalpatharu institute of technology offers bachelor degree course in engineering. In survey No 31 (Kanchaghatta) besides Revansiddappa Road, Stella-Marry Convent imparts education to children of Lower and Higher Primary schools. It was the first well- managed convent in Tiptur town. These are the educational institutions of the central part of the town, which occupy a sizeable space in the land use. (See Figure No.4.9).
The second important part in the educational land use is in the southern part of the town. It has only primary and secondary educational institutions, which are satisfactory in number. As Kalpatharu institutions developed more and more in the central part of the town in field of higher education, other parts of the town lost their attraction as the location for establishment of higher Educational institutions in the town.
In this southern part near Railway Bridge on the eastern side of the Y.T. Road three educational institutions are located. All these are in Ward No. 21. The first is a Polytechnic College managed by Rangapur Mutt. Besides this institution, Sarvodaya High School and Pre-university College are located. Goragondanahalli the village limit of Tiptur Town has got a higher primary school in Ward No. 22. At the entrance of gandhinagara in Ward No.20, there is a Urdu Higher primary school with a play ground. In the same area there is a kannada Higher primary school. There is another Urdu Lower Primary school in Dastagir Katte in Ward No.13. In Bovi Colony (Ward No.17) a Lower Primary school and a Urdu Lower Primary school can be seen. Al-ameen Lower and Higher primary school and a high school of the same institution are developed in Ward No. 16. Gandhinagara. A Kannada Higher primary school is located in Ward No, 14. In the same ward Arryan Urdu Higher primary school and Udaya Bharathi Pre-university and Degree College can be seen. Behind the Udaya Bharathi are ITI is also developed. In the same Ward No. 14, Gandhi Vidya Peeta High school is situated near Railway station. In the western side at the southern town, in ward No. 27 (Maranagere and Sharadanagar), there are two lower primary schools.
The Northern part of the town has only three primary schools and a high school. Prior to 1996, Educational institutions had not come up in sufficient as it was a village. In ward No. 23, beside Halkurike Road Sujnana Higher primary school has been established in ward No. 23. On the Western side of the Tiptur Halepalya Road one higher primary and High – school are situated in Ward No. 23. [See Figure No.4.9]
There are a few computer Educational institutions in the central part of the town. They are often on the upper floors of the buildings. The centers frequently shift from one place to another. Some of them are closed because of more popular centers being started. As typing institutions are becoming increasing unpopular after losing the introduction of computers, they are also closing their business and some of the places are vacant at present.
Temples and Places of Worship as Public Utility Land uses:
Under public utility land use, temples and places of worship have considerable space in a town land use. Since a long time places of worship have increasingly come up in urban areas. Many towns and cities have originated and grown by the influence of temples and places worship. For example, Madurai, Mecca, Varanasi, Amristar, Vatican etc. have developed because of the influence of religions importance. Increasing urbanization with its wealth and also stress-ridden life, people belonging to different religious have gone into building big and beautiful places of worship in urban areas. It is not uncommon to see them right adjacent to an important street. Some of the recent ones have come up in the outskirts of the city (Rajeshwari temple in Bangalore and the Mysore Road). But a medium size class three Tiptur town has some religious places within its limits.
The history of the Tiptur temples is as old as the history of Tiptur itself.
Kalleshwara temple, Kote Anjaneya, Kote Ganapathi, Kollapuradamma, Tipturamma and temples of village limits are old temples of the town. (See Figure No. 4.10 and Plate No.6) Temples and places of worship in Tiptur have occupied a remarkable area in public utility land use because there are 84 temples all over town municipal limits. Most of the temples are located along the roads. Some of them have been constructed for the livelihood of the priests. Most of the temples are related to Shiva and goddess Sahkthi and have been called by various names. Kalleswara, tipturamma (Gramadevate), Kannissaka Parameshwari, Jain temples, Mallikarjunaswamy Temple and the Pandurangaswamy temple in the heart of the town and Mahalaxmi and Ranganath temples of Halepalya are not worthy for their size.
Public utility land use related to temples and places of worship in the central town is very important. There are three temples, two mosques and one church. In Ward No.1 beside the tank bridge a Shakti temple is located. Ward No.2 has 4 temples. Important of these Ganapathi, Anjaneya and Kollapuradamma temples. Kalleswara and Gramadevathe (Tipturamma) and Navagraha temples are located in Ward No.3 beside B.H. Road. Oldest mosques of the town and a Shiva Basaveswara temple share a single wall in Doddapete Road in the same Ward indicating the unity of Hindu and Muslim. Behind these temples Kannika Parameswari temple is situated on Santhepete Road. There a total of nine temples in ward No.3. This shows the considerable area under this kind of public utilty service. The Ward No.3 temples and mosques have a history hundreds of years. Secondly the Hindu Muslim unity since hundreds of years is an indication of our forefather’s sense of communal harmony. The Pandurangaswamy Temple and Ganapathi Temple’s are in Ward No.1. There are three Temples Ward No. 5 of which two are Jain Temples have constructed recently by the side of ramamandir. In the same ward beside the railway station road, a mosque can be seen. This might be the second oldest mosque of the town. There is only one temple in Ward No.6. Ward No. 15 is located in the central part of the town. In this ward two temples have been constructed in the slum area (Mavinathopu) Ward No 7 is the K.R. Extension’s part, where the Shiridi Saibaba temple is located near Government Girl’s Pre-University College. In the same ward within the complex of Gurukula Kalyana Mantapa, a Shiva temple has recently been built. There is only one church in the Tiptur town in ward No.7, beside Halkurike Road. a priest and some people together have built a temple opposite the cosmopolitan club in Ward No. 7. Ward No.8 has only one temple, at Shankar Mutt. In Govinapura (Ward No. 9) there is a Shiva temple. Ward No. 10 has four places of worship. Ramamandir in K.P.T.C.L. quarters and Subramanyaswamy temple near Housing Board Colony are prominent. Ward No 11 has housed two temples. This ward is also a place of education has health facilities and is an administrative area. Therefore temples are very few in number. Ward No. 26 in Kanchagatta village limits of the town has only one temple in the middle of Kanchagatta village. A wide area of this ward is vacant with new houses coming up here and there. Thus the central part of the town’s public utility land use covers 33 temples, two mosques, two Jain temples and one church.
Southern Tiptur town comparatively has lesser public utility area than the central town in terms of places of worship. Nevertheless, it is equally important as the central town. There are 32 temples and three mosques used as places worship by the local people. As Gandhinagara is prominently a Muslim are mosques are prominent here. Ther are three Mosques. The biggest mosque of the town is located in Ward No. 18, beside Keregodi Road. The tower of this mosque draws attention, not only for its height but also of its RCC. Construction The second mosque of this area is located in Ward No.13 of Dastagir Katte. Thirdly in Gurappanakatte of Ward No.17, another Mosque ha also been built. Gandhinagar’s Hindu residents are very conservative regarding their, castesm language practices. Because of these complexities, these are temples several built for their gods and goddesses. In Dastagir Katte of Ward No.13, a Shaneswara temple can be seen near Keregodi Road. Temples are conspicuous by their absence in Ward No. 14 and 16 have a one temple, situated near Kalpatatu industry. Gurappanakatte (Ward No.17) has three temples. In Ward No. 18, there is only one temple and Ward No. 19 also has a single temple. Ward No. 20 has two temples. In Ward No. 21 there are three temples. Thus, the temples are distributes all over the Gandhinagara area. Most of the temoles belongs to goddess Shakti Worshipping of other goddesses like Yellamma, Maramma etc. is not uncommon.
The Southern part of the town is also consists of localities and wards like Goragondanhalli village limits and Maranagere village limits. Goragondanahalli in Ward No. 22 has 12 temples. This is the highest number of temples in any ward. Maranagere, which is situated to the west of Gandhinagara belongs to Ward No. 27 where there are six temples. Both Goragondanhalli and Maranagere temples are hundreds of years of old. Their history runs parallel to the history of these two villages.
One important socio – Geographical factor in the temple land use of the southern town is that there are 32 temples in Southern town of which 18 temples are situated outside the Gandhinagara area. About 90% of southern town’s population resides in Gandhinagara area but there are only 12 temples here. Out of five mosques in the town three are situated in Gandhinagara.
In the Nothern part, the town, land use for public utility consists mainly of temple and schools. Surprisingly, there are more temples than schools. There are only four schools in contrast to sixteen temples, which is not be a good sign of social development. Most of temples are devoted to Vishun. In ward No. 25, that is in Halepalya, there are eight temples of which Ranganatha, Mahalakshmi, Anjaneya temples, and Ramamandir are prominent. Ward No. 24 Sathyanarayanaswamy, Kencharaya Swamy and Siddharudaswamy temples are prominent.
Mutt and Hostels:
Religious Mutts are most dominating institutions in Indian society since long time their main intention is to spread collection and teach the religious matter and also serving the society.
Land use in public utility of this town is also associated with mutts and hostels. There are 6 mutts in the town. They are:
1) Murugarajendra Mutt maintained by Sri Murugarajendra Mutt of Chitradurga
2) Gurukukanandashrama maintained by Siddlehali Swamiji
3) Shadakshara Mutt, a branch of Morrusavira Mutt, Hubli
4) Parappaswamy mutt
5) Siddharooda Mutt also a branch of Hubli Siddharooda Mutt
6) Shankar Mutt controlled by Shri Sringeri Sharad Mutt.
Murugarajendre Mutt is located in the heart of the town, near the bus stand. It is one of the oldest Mutts of Tiptur towns. This belongs to Veerashaiva Swamiji and runs a Sanskrit Schools, a hostel complex for all classes of students of all castes and maintains a Kalyanamantapa (marriage hall) within the Mutt complex. All these are in Ward No.6.
Gurukulanandashram is built on a wide site in K.R. Extension (Ward No. 7). It also belongs to Veerashaiva castes. A big hall of Hostel, an I.T.L., 2 Kalyanamantapa, a temple and a Mutt can be seen within this campus.
Shadakshara Mutt is located in ward No.26. (Kanchaghatta) Rudramuni Swamiji is the chief of this Mutt. This mutt is runs a school with in the campus.
Siddharooda Mutt and Parappaswamy Mutt both are in ward No. 24 of Hosapalya. Religious functions are held in these Mutts.
Shankara Mutt is housed in Ward No. 8 (K.R. Extension). The new building of he mutt has recently (1998-99) been constructed under the guidance of late Sri B.M. Chandrashekar.
Hostels are equally responsible for the educational development and popularity of educational institutions outer the town as these institutions is depends on the developments of hostels.
There are 17 hostels spread all over the town. The hostel of the town Jayadeva Hostel was started in 1912 by His Holiness Niranjana Jagadguru Sri Jayadeva Murugarajendara Swaminiji of Chitradurga. It is situated near the bus stand in Ward No. 6 beside B.H. Road.
In 1922 a similar hostel was stated by His Holiness H.H. Karibasava Desikendra Swamiji of Siddlehalli, in the heart of K.R. Extension in Ward No. 7.
Vasavi Vidyarthi Nilaya is maintained by the local Vysya community since 1962. This community institution maintains two hostels, one for boys and another for girls. The boys’ hostel is located in Ward No. 6 near Vinoda Talkies. The girls’ hostel is in Ward No. 5 on the Ramamandira Road.
The Sarvodaya Hostel was started in 1955 by the State Social Welfare Department and is situated besides Y.T. Road in Ward No. 21.The Kalpatharu Boys’ Girls’ Hostels were started by Kalpatharu Vidya Samsthe in 1965. At present there are 3 big Hostel buildings. Two of them are in Ward No. 26. Girls Hostel is in Ward No.11 adjoining the B.H.Road.
Bapuji Hostel was started after Kalpatharu hostels. It is purely for college boys, and maintained by Backward Caste and Minorities Department. This hostel is housed in Ward No. 27 near Tiptur-Hassan Highway Road.
There are a number of other hostels in town. The State Government has been maintaining metric and post – metric Hostels. A Girls’ hostel is started in Ward No. 19 at Gandhinagara and boys hostel in Ward No. 10. Community hostels like Brahmin (Ward No. 8). Madivala and Vokkaliga Hostels are housed in ward No. 10 beside the Housing Board Colony. Totally, 17 hostels in Tiptur town serving the students. Thus hostels and mutts are important criteria for determining the public utility land use of Tiptur town, (See Figure No. 4.11)
Administrative Land Use:
There are very few locations without an administrative area that can be called a town. A town’s origin itself is in the location of the administrative service. It may be king’s a place or a seat of power like Washington D.C., Chandigarh or Canberra, Brasilia. It is a common to see that a sizable land within an urban area is devoted to majestic office buildings like the Parliament House and associated offices in our national capital New Delhi. Karnataka is not far behind in this regard. In the heart of Bangalore there is Vidhana Soudha and its adjoining office buildings, which form totally an administration zone. However, if we come to smaller sized urban settlements, the administration zone. Is a smaller area in the total urban land uses? There are mostly taluk offices or a Magistrate or Munsiff court a few other offices such as branches of Electricity Board, PWD, LIC, Education and offices of the Social Welfare Department and the like. In Karnataka, since 1981s there is unique development in giving a better shape to administrative land use. This is being done by housing most offices at the Taluk level in what are called Mini Vidhana Soudha, Miniature cement structures being built at many of taluk headquarters. It seems to be a strategy of the Government to give location advantage to rural masses. Tiptur is yet to get one like that, but there is a modern Taluk office on B.H. Road.
Tiptur town serves as a sub – division head quarter in Tumkur district in the South Eastern part. It has a sub – division head quarter for Tiptur, Chikkanayakanahalli and Turuvekere taluks. Ther are 53 administrative offices of both central and State governments within the town limits.
The taluk office of Tiptur is, perhaps, the office of the town in the modern sense of the term. In 1883, taluk office was shifted from Honnavalli to Tipur. After the shifting of the taluk office other offices started getting established gradually in the town. The Taluk office, Court, High School, Maternity Hospital, Police Station and Railway Station are offices of pre- independence periods.
At present within the town’s limits, there are 53 offices of different departments located in different parts and wards of the town. Centralization of office location can be visualized in this town. About 90% of the offices are located in the central part or the central strip of the town.
From the east, in the central part of the town in Ward no. 2(Kote area) the office of the Assistant Director of Veterinary. Health is located in the Veterinary Hospital building. In Ward No. 4 (Pete area) there are three central Government and five state Government offices viz., Telegraph, Post and Bharath Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Offices and an office of Child Development Programme. Urban Police Station, office of Taluk Jail, Superintendent, and Office of the Assistant Director of Health and Family Planning and co-operative Department are State Government Offices in the locality. The taluk Co-operative Registrar’s Office and Telegraph (central government) Office, taluk Punchayat office, Block Development Office, Excise Inspector’s office, and Town Municipality offices are working besides the Railway Station Road in Ward No.6. In ward No.7 (K.R.Extension), a post office is located. In ward No. 8 there is the office of Weights and Measures. Ward No. 15 is parallel to the railway station where there are two offices of the Department of Railways.
Ward No. 11 is an important area in administrative land use. About 75% of the ward area is used for administrative and public utility purposes. This is a unique ward of he town in this respect. From the Travelers Bungalow Circle to Hassan Circle, on the left side of B.H. Road, 23 offices are concentrated. This is purely an office and quarters area. No individual and private constructions are allowed here. The offices of the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited., Taluks Social Welfare Office, Fire Brigade, Sub-Register, Assistant Commissioner, Public Works Department, of Fisheries, Life Insurance Corporation, Tahasildar, Taluk Treasury, Doordarshan and the Taluk court; office of the Forest ranger, Assistant Director of Land Records, Assistant Director of Horticulture, Assistant Director of Agriculture, Assistant Engineer Zillaparishat, Assistant Commercial Tax officer, Assistant Director of Sericulture, Assistant Dierctor of Industries and Commerce, Assistant Conservator of Forests and Office of the Social Forestry. All are located along the B.H. Road. On the other side of the B.H. Road, opposite Taluk office, Taluk medical office is located in the General Hospital complex. Similarly opposite the KPTCL, Block Education office is located.
The Southern part of Tiptur town has very little administrative land use because of the railway line and this part is still remains outside the central accessible part. It is predominantly a residential land use area and most of the southern part is a congested area. But, due to the establishment of A.P.M.C. market yard, offices like the Administrative office of A.P.M.C., Rural Police Station, Post office and office of the Drinking water Treatment Plant etc. are located here.
In the Northern town, as formed was a village limits before 1996, only a post office and offices of Khadhi Gramodyoga and Handloom Development Corporation have come under administrative Land use. (See Figure No. 4.6)
Parks and Playgrounds as Public Utility Land Uses:
Parks and playgrounds and open spaces are essential patterns of urban land use. Generally, they occupy prime locations within urban limits as they are lung spaces of public importance. But the sad part of Tiptur parks is that they have been either encroached upon or neglected and not at all these in newly developed extensions. However it is necessary and imperative to know how much of total urban space is devoted for this kind of vital land use. In a town like Tiptur, being a class three town, 5.67% of its total developed area in under parks and play grounds. They are not properly maintained. Unfortunately parks are very few in number and even they are not maintained properly. Not even a single regional park worth its name or quality is formed in the town. The municipal authority has also not strived in this direction to provide the public with Green Park. In the entire town only four parks have been developed. The first main park of the town was developed during the 1940s at the time of formation of K.R. Extension. The park occupies an area of about one acre. This park is situated in the middle of the K.R. Extension in Ward No. 7. The second is in Ward No. 14, near the Railway station. Two parks are developed and maintained by Tiptur Town Municipal Authority. Recently (1999-2000) a park was developed under the guidance of the Assistant Commissioner of Tiptur. It is located beside the taluk office in Ward No.11. This park was developed and named as “Mahatama Gandhi Park”. This has an area of about one hectare. The fourth is situated in the Regulated Market Campus Playing facilities have been provided for children in this park. A mini park is has come-up in the Housing Board Colony. The park in front of Municipal office has lost its glory due to shortage of water and negligence on the part of town municipality.
According to the new plan of 1996 about 211 acres of land is earmarked for the parks, playgrounds and open spaces, however no additional parks are developed by the Municipal Authority. Area wise parks are badly needed by this town.
There are no playgrounds worth mentioning in the town specifically for public use. Play grounds maintained by schools and colleges are often used for public purposes. All the schools and colleges also do not have playgrounds. Some schools and colleges have their own playgrounds. Out of 55 educational institutions, 28 have some sort of playgrounds, which are below standard for promotion of sports. [See Plate No. 7]
Important Play Grounds of the Towns:
In Ward No.10, in the middle of the Government High school and Government Higher Primary School a mini stadium was constructed recently (1998-99). It is these only the public play ground. The Department of Youth Welfare and Sports and the Department of Public Instruction of the Government of Karnataka have jointly built a stadium. Other play grounds are in and around Kalpatharu Institute of Technology; in Ward No. 26, P.A. College and Kalpatharu Science College ground in Ward No. 11 of Vidyanagar, Government High school play ground in Ward No. 10, and Government Lower Primary School in K.R. Extension and Government Girls P.U. College ground in Ward No. 7 have sizeable area of play grounds.
The main middle school inward No. 10 has a play ground. In Ward No.7, Government Girls High School and Government Lower Primary School also have relatively sufficient playgrounds. Thus the Western part of central town has been enjoying sufficient space for playgrounds. Some other schools and colleges have small playgrounds. Sarvodaya Higher Primary School, High School, and P.U. College have reasonably good playgrounds in Ward No. 21. In Ward No. 20 Urdu Higher Primary School and Kannada Higher Primary School near A.K. Colony of Gandhinagara also have small playgrounds. In the same area, Ward No. 16 in Bovi Colony Higher Primary School has a small play ground. In Ward No.1, Kote Model Higher Primary School also enjoys a playground. In Ward No. 22 of Goragondanahalli, Kanchaghatta, Higher Primary School and High schools of Hosapalya and Annapura to have their own of play grounds although of a limited area.
Recreational Land use in Tiptur Town:
Theatres occupied an important place in the earliest civilized urban societies. Theatre and cinema halls became very popular in towns and cities, with the development of technology. Different types of recreational places have become an essential part of urban life. To name a few, music parlours, dancing halls, video parlours etc. However, in a class three town like Tiptur, theatres, cinema halls and music and video parlours, often Kalyanamantapa and auditoriums are used for recreation.
Recreational influence is not confined only to Tiptur town. It also attracts people from outside the town. There are 4 big cinema theatres and a mini theatre and five clubs engaged in recreation.
The four theatres are located in the central part of the town. In the eastern end in Ward No. 1 beside B.H. Road,(Ganesh theatre); The second called the Vinod Theatre is the first theatre of the town. This theater is situated in the central part of the town near Kalleswara temple. The third is the Thrimurthy theatre also adjacent to B.H. Road, the fourth theatre is Lakshmi Theatre which is in Gandhinagar of Ward No. 19 on the Northern side of the Keragodi Road.
Clubs of this town are also to some extent important centres of recreation for the rich and the middle classes. Cosmopolitan Club is the first elite club of the town. This is situated on the western end of K.R. Extension. The second Club is Padma club in Doddapete Road. State Government Employees Club on B.H. Road near the taluk office is a recent one. Near the Railway Station a Youth Sports Club has engaged enproviding recreation to the youth of the town. In Vinayaka nagar, beside Thrimurthy theatre a soprts club is established for snooker and other games for the youths of the town.
Some community halls of the town have also become recreational centers. Ambedkar Bhavan in gandhinagar Shiksahaka Bhavan in K.R. Extension and other 9 small community Halls which are situated in A.K. Colony; Guruppanakatte, Indiranaga, Chamundeshwari Extension, Gayathrinagar, Vinayakanagar amd Mavinothopu are also places of recreational land use.
Public Health Service Land Use:
Health services under public utility land uses have occupied an important sapace in Tiptur town. There are evidences in town Municipal records that since 1916 there was a public Health service provided by L.F. Dispensary. Municipal authorities have contributed Rs. 235 for the maintenance of he dispensary. It shows that the public health services of the dispensary are close to the present old hospital. In 1930, a maternity hospital was started in the present Girls PU College building beside B.H. Road in K.R. Extension (Ward No. 7) this hospital was constructed party from municipal funds. The government General Hospital was started in 1963 in the Western part of the town. This is Beside Government high school in Ward No. 11. Municipal Authorities has been constructed by the Municipality in Ward No. 11 beside the Government high school. In 1965 the Maternity Hospital merged with the General Hospital. At present one general hospital, one dispensary, one primary health centre and one Veterinary Hospital are the town. Earlier, this hospital was providing medical services to the entire Tiptur Taluk and the adjoining villages of other Taluks. But, after the modification, it has been attraction some patients from a wide area of other taluks likes Turuvekere, Channarayapatna, Gubbi, Chikkanayakanahalli, Hosadurga, Holalkere, Arasikere and Hassan.
Probably the earliest hospital building, which exists even new, is the Pete Hospital. Previously it was called “Dispensary”. Now it is called “Office of the Assistant Director of Health and Family Planning”. This hospital provides medical services mainly to the town’s patients. Particularly Kote, Pete and Gandhinagara patients get medical services for common decease by this hospital.
A primary health centre is providing patients with medical service in the Northern part of the town and is located in Ward No. 25 in the Annapura village limits.
Tiptur town has a veterinary hospital for the taluk. The town’s animals are also treated here. Local merchants have donated money for the building of the veterinary hospital.
With these four public health centres under this kind of public utility land use, there are many private hospitals, and nursing homes which have been discussed in the commercial land use. They are scattered within the town’s limits
Transportation Land use:
In the study of urban land use, land used for transportation is quite a big area occupying strategic locations. Its land use is of prime importance in terms of land values as it is related to bus, train, air terminals and their associated land uses constitute an important area of a town/ city.
Tiptur town has about 95.20 hectares of land under land used for the purpose of transport facilities. It includes roads, parking places, bus stops, railway line, railway station and bus stand. All over the town 133.25 kms. Length of roads have been formed and 21.16% of developed area is under transportation land use.
Streets and Roads:
The developed area of the town is crises crossed with numerous streets of varying dimensions. A perusal of the town map shows (See Figure No. 4.2 and Plate No. 8) that Tiptur conforms more or less to the grid pattern in certain areas and a man on horse like animal in Pete, K.R. Extension, A.P.M.C. Housing Board Colony, Central Gandhinagara, Sahankarappa Layout. Roads present a straight line grid pattern as they are partly planned, which are crossed by main roads. Roads of K.R. Extension are neatly planned than some older parts and some new parts or layouts of the town in the later unplanned development. Kote, Dastagir Katte, Arasunagar, Maranagere, Kanchagatta, Halepalya, Ammasandra, Goragondanahalli, Vinayakanagara and Vidyanagar’s have narrow and irregular roads. Most of the roads do not have properly laid out cross roads, many do not have proper drains on either sides. Some roads are less than 10 feet in width. An estimate shows that for the purpose of construction of roads within the town limits, about 75 hectares of land is used. Almost all the roads bear specific names. Consideration for the naming of a roads shows that streets are named after certain local individuals, national leaders, certain religions and occupations. Latest and most secular fashion is adopted in assigning a name to the main roads and cross roads.
As it has been already mentioned that Tiptur is on Bangalore – Honnavar highway, and a railway line passes from east to west for about 6 km. in the centre of the town. Railway station of Tiptur is in Ward No. 15 and has a width of 100 meaters and length and length of about 400 meters. It comprises railway offices, godowns and open spaces for stocking minerals and platforms (See Plate No. 7). A second railway station of the town is situated opposite Kalpataru institution at Sharadanagar.
Within the town limits normally buses are stopped at six places beside the roads. They are Kodi Circle, Aralikatte Circle, Halkurike cross, General Hospital, Hassan Circle and Gandhinagara Railway gate. These are the common locations of bus stops for both private and KSRTC buses. We see three wheeler auto stands also near the bus stop to attract maximum customers. Apart from these auto stands, there are two other big auto stands operating. These are located near the bus stand. One is in front of the KSRTC bus stand the other is in front of the private bus stand. Near railway station auto rickshaws operate particularly at the time of arrival and departure of trains. Some small auto rickshaw stands also operate near Halepalya Circle, Goragondanahalli cross, Gandhinagara railway gate, near mosque and Doddapete circle.
Bus stands have occupied a wide area in transport land use in a single stretch in the middle of the town. In Ward No 7 and 8, about six acres of land is used for this purpose by both private and KSRTC bus stand. These two stands of private and KSRTC together form two main transport areas. The KSRTC bus stand is shifted to land acquired in Tiptur tank at present. Due to this development, to some extent, traffic jams, congestion and inconvenience to commuters have been reduced. Private buses and vans operate from a place adjacent to B.H. Road and have an area of about 1.5 acres of land. Further, towards the North of private bus stand, beside Halepalya Road, KSRTC bus stand is located in a sufficient space in an area of 4.5 acres.
As B.H. Road passes through Tiptur, which is an important copra business of he country, a lot of trucks and busses pass through the town connecting Tiptur with various parts of the state. Frequency of busses is high to Bangalore, Tumkur, Shimoga, Kadur, Arasikere, Hassan, Channarayapatna, Daramasthala, Managalore, Turuvekere, Mysore and so on. Private buses connect Davanagere, Chitraduraga, Hosaduraga, Holalkere, Huliyar, Chikkanayakanahalli, Madhugiri, Hindupur, Sira, Gowribidanur, and so on. Details about bus service are discussed in the transportation hinter land.
Truck transportation is a very important mode of transport in Tiptur, which also forms an important land use. It is not out of context to mention that, every day 20 to 30 Lorries leave Tiptur to transport only copra to North India, from A.P.M.C. alone. However there is no specific parking area for Lorries for which reason they are parked haphazardly in vacant places. Vacant grounds around APMC Market yard, Kote, Pete and bus stand areas are used for parking Lorries. This transportation land use needs attention of the town administration.
Land Use Under Burial Grounds
Towns and cities have some amounts of land under this essential public utility service. Important to various communities of an urban settlement, often they are closer to religious segments. Over the years, as the town grows, burial ground of yester years lies in the middle of a well grown urban area.
Burial/ cremation grounds are also seen in Tiptur. A Muslim Burial ground is located beside Thrimurthy theatre in Vinyakanagara. Perhaps it is the oldest big Muslim burial ground of the town. A Christian burial ground is also located beside the Muslim burial ground. Brahmins and certain Hindu communities too have two burial grounds. The former is situated beside Halkurike Road next to Govinapura in Ward No. 23. The same place is also used and for burial purpose. Recently another cremation ground is developed from public donations called as Mukthidhama. This cremation ground is located near B.H. Road of Ward No. 1. This ground is developed under the auspices of Vysya community of the town. It is a peculiar thing that, Hindus who bury dead bodies are the major community since historic period of the town, but there was no specific burial ground for them. Now some Lingayat merchants have developed a Veerashaiva Rudrabhumi. Sree Maganahalli Channaveerappa and Sons have donated about three acres of land for this purpose. It is also locatednear the Vysya cremation ground. It has a Shiva temple, water supply, shelter and security arrangements. Construction of compound wall is going on (2001). Veerashaiva Kshemaabhivridhi Sangah has been taking care of this ground. Unfortunately a public burial ground which is also located near these two burial grounds is used by municipal authorities for disposal of towns’ municipal wastes and garbage.
Vacant Land Use Scenario in Tiptur Town:
An important component of an urban land use of a given town or city is the position of its vacant lands. Their size and location indicates the urban economic scenario and even its stage of urban growth. Tiptur town, over the years, has annexed neighbouring villages into town’s limits. Particularly, fringe localities have more vacant lands than the interior locations. After the expansion of municipal limits to surrounding villages like Bandihalli, Goragondanahalli, Maranagere, Kanchaghatta, Annapura, Halepalya and Hosapalya in 1996, a large area of vacant lands has been included to the town limits.
AGRICULTURE AND GARDEN LAND USE WITHIN TIPTUR TOWN LIMITS:
Tiptur town is in the midst of agricultural lands, which predominantly grow coconut and certain garden crops. The town has evolved over the years from an agricultural village into a prominent commercial town. Most of the inhabitants of Tiptur town were originally farmers. To some extent the same activity is still continuing within the town’s limits and its immediate neighbourhood. About 235.10 hectares of land within the town’s limits is used for the purpose of agriculture and garden crops. It accounts for 15.56% of the town area (See Figure No.4.1).
Coconut gardening is still a domination pattern of agricultural land use in the town. About 90% of the land of this type is occupied by coconut gardens within the town’s limits (See Plate No. 9). It accounts for 211.5 hectares. About 10% of old land in the town is limits are used for dry crops like ragi, jowar, field beans, oilseeds, vegetables and areca nut.
Agricultural land and garden area of the town are shown in Figure No. 4.1. Considering their detailed study on the eastern side of town’s limits agriculture and gardens from 28% of the cultivated area. Ward No. 1 and 21 predominantly have coconut gardens, because locations next to and below the Tiptur tank side have led to a long time coconut gardening. In the midst of the coconut gardens, vegetables, pulses, flowers, grapes are also cultivated in this part of the town. The latter type of vegetable crop cultivation in due to the market in the town.
The southern part of the town has 32% of the land use under garden area of the town. From Y.T. Road to Hassan Road Ward No. 22 and 27, Goragondanahalli, Palya and Maranagere villages have this kind of land use where Maranagere tank and some small tanks are the source of water for these gardens. Since the last two decades. Farmers have been depending on the tube wells but the water level is fast depleting. In the southern part, elevated areas of both sides of the garden have a scattered form of dry cropping.
The Western part of the town has this land use where Madihalli and Kanchaghatta have limited areas. 18% of this land use cultivated area belongs to in this part of the town’s limits. The western part is also an area which has more of this kind of land use than Eastern and Southern parts of the town. Hence, the garden area is less in them. Upper portion of the cultivated area is used for the dry forming purpose but most of it is vacant. Dry forming has lost its economic charm and these dry fields are converted in to residential layouts for the future expansion of Tiptur town.
Study of land use in Tiptur town shows that certain unusual land uses are practiced. However, it is highly negligible. For instance, the cultivation of coffee in a dry belt like Tiptur which has an annual rainfall of 700 mm. in recent years. The rich farmers are urban dwellers. Their penchant for having a garden / farm in an urban area has lead to an increase of garden cropped areas. Coconut farms, teak or oak like valuable trees are planted in areas of is assured water supply farms deep bore wells. This also has lead to planting of coffee under the shade of these garden crops.
The unique characteristic of the town’s cultivated area is of coffee. Coffee cultivation is usually limited to Malnad region. Some times it is cultivated outside malnad also where water is abundant. A though there is severe water scarcity in Tiptur. There is a lone coffee planter cultivating about 11/2 acres of coffee. Since last 7 years this unique cultivation is practiced in Tiptur in survey No 395, behind Prabath Coffee Depot.
The northern part of cultivated agricultural land comes under Annapura, Halepalya, Hosapalya and Govinapura village limits as well as part of Shankarappa Layout. 22% of this type of garden area of the town is located in this part. Coconut garden has occupied, again, most of the agriculture land in this part also. Mango garden too can be seen in this part in elevated land areas. Crops like arecanut, banana and rice are also grown in smaller areas and dry land crops are cultivated in negligible areas. But, as the demand for urban built up area has increased this king of green areas will be reduce in the years to come.
TANKS AND WATER BODIES WITHIN TIPTUR TOWN LIMITS:
Tiptur town has a major tank in the Northeast part of the town which forms one of the important public utility land uses. It has given rise to the growth of the town as it was providing drinking water for a long time. There is an evidence in the Kalleswara Temple epigraphy which indicates that, this tank was built prior to 10th century AD. According to that irrigated land which is located below the tank was donated by Gangarashi Panditha, (preceptor) to deities of Kalleshwara Temple. Such an important historic tank still has a stone laid bounding but it does not have agricultural land use as it does not have water and lies within limits of Tiptur town.
The Tiptur tank is located in the Eastern end of the town. It is bounded by Kote and Pete on the South, Bus stand and coconut garden on the West, Doddayyanapalya and coconut gardens on the North, and again coconut garden on the East. The following table gives some statistical information about the Tiptur tank.
Table No. 4.10
Details of Tiptur Town Tank I 1999-2000
|1) Catchments||12.95 Sq. km|
|2) Water spread area||28.00 Hectare|
|3) Live capacity||33.50 Mcft|
|4) Top width||01.80 M|
|5) Front slope||1 ½:1|
|6) Rear slope||0.084027778|
|7) Free board||0.75|
|8) Height of bund||3.30 Meter|
|9) Length of bund||1140 Meter|
|10) Type of weir||Sloping Apron|
|11) Registered Achkat||Garden 41.60|
Source:Department of small Irrigation (sub-Division) Chikkanayakanahalli (Karnataka Governmernt).
This centuries old tank was the only source of water to the towns. Both directly and indirectly in the towns wells depend on this tank for their underground water. This depends on the filling of tank frequently since Tiptur town lies in the rain shadow region with around 700 mm / year and this tank rarely gets filled up. Recent filling to its brim was in 1978. After that there is not a single year of its filling. However as the town is growing and the town will probably get Hemavathi cannal there is a need to protect this tank, as it will provide a cool climate and a public utility space for the town. Flow into this tank has almost stopped due to the construction of bunds by the owners of coconut gardens in the catchments area of the tank. Even the numbers of bore wells have also increased in recent years in its catchments area.
Apart from the big tanks within the town is limits, there are 6 small tanks that can store rain water in a small quantity. Water from these is used for general purposes, one bunds is located beside the railway track in Ward No. 11 at Vinayakanagara. The second is in Sharadanagar beside Hassan road. The third is located in Kanchaghatta village beside Honavalli road. Another three bunds are located in Annapura and Halepalya. All these six small tanks have occupied an area of one acre or less of land each. Prior to 1980, these tanks were filled with water during the monsoon season rest of the months they completely dry. Often, to some extent, they become problem areas in either receiving parts of solid or liquid waste from the town. They need restoration by adopting methods of conservation.
There are some other water passages within the town is limits. All these are formed naturally by rain water and water let out from tanks. Hence these are non-perennial streams. Starting from the west, one such stream starts from the Madihalli tank outlet. As it passes towards the North in the middle of the coconut garden of Madihalli, it enters Kanchaghatta village limits. There is reaches Kanchaghatta small bund. Further, it moves straight towards tiptur tank passing through Govindapura and Shankarappa Layout. In the Southern part of the town, a water passage runs through Maranagere, Mavinathopu and crosses the tank as an outlet. Near Gurapppanakatte a water passage originates leading towards the East. It passes through Ward No. 20 and 22. Near Goragandanahalli it joins another water passage, which comes from Goragondanahalli village side. Further, it crosses Y.T. Road and joins the Tiptur water tank’s outlet passage. Finally, there are two water outlets, both of hem originating from Tiptur tank. One is on South and another on the North of the tank bund. The Southern one starts in Kodi circle and moves towards South – Northern passage moving towards the South – east, joins the Southern side passage of the Tiptur tank.
These water passages, since they lay on the outskirts of the town some passing through the town itself have become sewage drains. There is a need for crating passages for them with the development of underground drainage (UGD) for the town.