HISTORICAL GROWTH AND MORPHOLOGY OF THE TIPTUR TOWN
MYTHS, LEGENDS AND HISTORY CONNECTED WITH THE ORIGIN AND GROETH OF THE TOWN:
There are no myths or legends associated with either the origin or the growth of Tiptur. In epigraphs this place has been referred to as ‘Thippaturu’. The etymologies of this name or its significances are not known. Shantaveeraiah1 considers that ‘Thippaturu’ which literally means three fold, implies that this ‘Uru’ (town) was thrice as important as any other town in the surrounding coutryside. In the absence of authentic data on the conditions of towns and villages in bygone days, this derivation can only be accepted as a reasonable conjecture. The local ‘Kalleswara’ temple is a ‘thrikutachala’ (i.e., having three cells) enshrining linga idol in each of the cells. This is an ancient temple and might have given the name of ‘Thrikuturu; which might have subsequently been corrupted into ‘Thripatturu’ and then to ‘Thippaturu. This too is a conjecture and it is, however, clear that the name given in inscriptions belonging to 11th century A.D. it has been corrupted to ‘Thipaturu’ and, after the advent of the British, into it’s anglicized form Thiptur which when spelt in English can be pronounced as Tiptur.
Tiptur is situated in an open country and from the military point of view it does not seem to have enjoyed any strategic importance at any time. Like many other towns and villages of the region Tiptur had for long been a place fortified with walls. Thugh no remnants of the fort walls now exist, it is significant that the appellation Kote meaning fort, survives to this day as the name of the oldest part of the town and also as a prefix to the temples of Anjaneya and Ganapathi in this locality.
Beside an epigraph recording certain granta of land found near the Kalleswara temple, there are three other inscribed virgals (hero stones) in Tiptur. These inscriptions are in Halegannada (old kannada) characters and several words in them have been effaced. The texts are reproduce in appendix No.3. One of the viragals the date of which has not been made out belongs to the reign of Hoysala King Vira Narasimha and refers to the bravery of one Damodara Deve Nayaka. That dated in Shaka 1050(1128 A.D.) mentions of a Kameya Nayaka who fought against a confederacy of Nayaks (Chiefs). The other Viragals dated in Shaka 1076(1154 A.D.) also belongs to the Hoysala periof and mentions an attack on Tippatur and highlighrs the bravery of one Bittoja. The inscriotion recording the grant of lands (1163 A.D.) speaks of Uttama Chola, a feudatory of the Hoysala, as ruling Nolambanakere 12, Tippatur and othe villages in this region. [Nolambanakere is now known as Nonavinakere and is about 16 kilometers south of Tiptur town]. On begetting a son, this chief and his wife are said to have installeda ligaa idol and along with it worshipped the othe linga idols besides Honnudikedevi in the Kalleswara temple and, having worshopped the holy feet of their preceptor Gangarashi Pandita granted certain irrigated lands and dry lands to the deities so worshipped by them. From this inscription it is evident that the tanks found at Tiptur were useful in those days for purpose of irrigation. It is quite likely that the large tank on Tiptur was bullt during or prior to the beginning of the Hoysala period and that Tiptur flourished at least for a few decades during the 12th Century as a seat of administration.
A brief historical sketch of this region may not be out of place at this juncture. Archaelological evidences unearthed near Kibbanhalli and Biligere villages of Tiptur Taluk show that it is an important open-air site of a Paleolithic settlement. The occurrence of braked tools along with the usual assemblage of South Indian Paleolithic artifacts is a special feature of this site. The hollow scrapers that too are found in large numbers have shown that the Paleolithic man of Kibbanahalli used wooden implements in addition to his stone tools. In Tumkur district only one megalithic site s been discovered so far and this too is located close to Kibbanahalli.
The known history of Tumkur district begins with the Gangas, who ruled over the southern and eastern districts of the State from early days of the Christian era up to the close of the 10th century. The inscription numbered Tp103 is regarded as the last Ganga inscription available in the entire district. Dated in 972 A.D., it belongs to the reign of Marasimba-III (960-74) also known as Satyavakya, who, having slain all the Nolambas had invested himself with the Congnomen Nolamba Kulantaka. About two centuries ealier, during the reign of Sivanara, it appears the Gangas were reduced to the status of feudatories by the Rashtrakutas and it is known that Rachamalla (818-37), son of Vijayaditya, freed the Ganga kingdom from the clutches of the Rashtrakutas. The Nolambas seem to have ruled as feudatories from the 8th century onwards. Their first king was Nolambadhiraja and they started their carrer as governors of a small territory called Nolambalige 1000 or Gangasasira. They claimed Pallava descent and had their capital at Honjeru (identified with Hemavati situated on the northern border of Sir taluk). Nomabanakere (now called Nonavinakere), a village about 16 kilometers south east of Tiptur town, takes its name from a large tank, perhaps built by some Nolamba chief and was the principal town of territory known in the past as Nolambanakere hanneradu (i.e., Nomabanakere 12). The Nolambas and the Gangas had matrimonial alliances with each other and in spite of this affiliation, were frequently at war with each other. The inscription numbered tp55 mentions Nanniga Ganga, an ephithet of znitimarga (837-70), while Tp47 of about the same period describes a Nolamba chief named Polalchora (800-860) marching against a fort. Nitimarga II (907-920) of the Ganga dynasty had a great adversary in Mahendra (the son of Nolambadhiraja Polalchora ad Jayabbe, the Ganga princess), who asserted his independence and challenged Ganga over lordship. Nitimarga ultimately defeated and killed Mahendra and earned the title ‘Mahendrantake’. However, the Nolambas continued as governors, and in course of time, acquired more territory until it became 32,000 districts in the beginning of the 10th century. After the conquest of Nolambas in 974 by the Ganga king Marasimha, Chalukyas became active in the region and Nolambas soon accepted them as their overelords. The Chola invasion of the Chalukyan kindom ending in the defeat of the Chalukyan forces at Kudalsangama (1064) resulted in the capital of Viceroyalty being changed and in the nomination of the Pandyas od Uchchangi as governors of the Nolambavadi province. The Nolamba lineage fades away from history after the 12th century in the surroundings of Tiptur.
The period 1000 to 1070 was marked by keen rivalry between the Cholas and the Chalukyas and it seems, the Cholas had the upper hand. Them this region came under the away of the Hoysalas. Ballala-I ascended the throne in 1102 and later shifted his capital to Belur. He, along with his brother, Vishnu, undertook the invasion of Nolambavadi in 1104. Inscriptions belonging to Vinayaditya (1047-98) and the earliest belonging to Vishunvardhana (1110-52) are found in tiptur Taluk. The Hoysalas were later on allies of the Cholas and Ballala II (11973-1220) has been hailed as “cholarajya prathishthacharya” i.e., the establisher of the Chola kingdom. Scions of the Chola family seem to have been in the service of the Hoysala kings during this period. Inscription numbered Tp 61 mentions of one Uttama Chola as ruling Nomabanakere 12, Tippatur and surroundion areas as a feudatory of the Hoysala King Narasimha (1152-74). As already mentioned the three Viragals at Tiptur also belong to the Hoysala period. Inscription numbered Tp128 dated 1202 mentions the chief of Honnavalli Twelve.
The Hoysala Kingdom was gradually absorbed into the Vijaynagara Empire. A few insertions belonging to the Vijayanagara period are found in Tiptur Taluk, though none of them is to be seen in Tiptur town. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Vijayanagar kinga granted several reacts of lands to their vassal chief’s bearing different titles. It would be relevant to mention Hagalvadi Chiefs who rules the country aroud Tiptur for about three hundred years from 1478. This Palayapatu (Chiefdom) at Erekatte in 1478 by Erimada Nayaka. The capital was shifted to Hagalavadi about 40 kilometers north-east of Tiptur Town, in 1558. Erimadanayaka was succeeded by Sali Nayaka (1508-44) who largely expanded the territory. For having faithfully served the Vijayanagara king Krishnadeva Raya, he was grantedthe territories of Honnavalli, Settikere, Tumkur, and Turuvekere and he also acquired several other areas including Nonavinakere. Since no specific mention is made of Tiptur it may be inferred that still even in this later period too Tiptur was an insignificant village, at least politically, Bhairava Nayaka (1544-78), the third Palayagar (Chief) who incidentally shifted the seat of administration to Hagalavadi embrace Veerashaiva faith. The most important ruler of this family, namely Mudiyappa Nayaka II (1700-40), has been hailed as a Raharshi a rare kind of philosopher-Chieftain. Though a staunch Veerashaiva, he was very tolerant and encourages his subjects to attained happiness by following their own faiths. A pious and benign ruler, he later abdicated his throne and engaged himself in spirtual pursuits. The next ruler, Muddaveerappa Nayaka (1740-53), earned for himself the title 12 from the moghul General Dilwarkhan. The twelfth and incidentally the last, ruler Channabasappa Nayaka (1753-55) was treacherously captured by Haider Ali in 1756 and the territory annexed to Mysore.
In 1799, after the fall of Tippu Sultan and the advent of the British, the Kingdom was restored to the Royal Family of Mysore and with that an era of peace and prosperity began. In 1830 however, there were disturbances in certain western regions of the kingdom such as Tharikere, Basavapatna, and Honnalli etc. , which were put down with the assistance of the British troops. This led to the imposition of the rule by British commissioners in 1831 and it lasted for 5 decades. This period marks a distinct phase in the development of modern Mysore and in a way, of Tiptur also. For, it was during this period i.e. , after 1831, that excellent systems of trunk roads were constructed throughout the country, leading through the ghats (mountain passes) of the surrounding territories and to the chief orts of the western coast. This expansion of transport facilities greatly stimulated traffic and since Tiptur was located on a provincial road its importance as a center of trade grew rapidly. During this period and earlier too, it seems Tiptur was a place of some commercial importance while Honnavalli (now a hobli headquarters) was a seat of administration. (See figure No.2.1).
Honnavalli is said to have been an Agrahara town in ancient times and has several relice belonging to the 10th century (Chola’s period) of which a mention may be made of temples of Kailaseswara and Lakshmi Narayana. The place enjoyed strategic importance during the medieval period in view of the low hill in its vicinity, which could offer some protection to the armies on their move. It is said that armies, during their March from east to west or vice versa, used to camp at the present site of Tiptur for a couple of days before resuming further journey. This place is, however a few kilometers away from the provincial road connection Bangalore to Shimoga and other areas of the coastal districts of former South and North kanara. After the advent of the British rule Honnavalli became the head quarters of the taluk and Tiptur became the head quarters of Hobli, this administrative set-up continued till 1886. The taluk was called Honnavalli. In 1886, Tiptur became the head quarters of the Taluk and Turuvekere which was transferred from the old Kadaba taluk was made a sub Taluk of Tiptur. The shfting of the taluk headquarter to Tiptur may be ttributed to its location on the trunk road and also its somewhat central situation especially with reference to Turuvekere sub-taluk which I 1886 became part of Tiptur Taluk. By then it was known that Tiptur would be made as railway station and that, even for railway communication, Honnavalli would be about 8 kilometers off the track. The railway from Bagalore to Harihar was opened for traffic in 1889. These two events of 1886 and 1889 may be regarded as of special significance in the subsequent growth of Tiptur into a town. A trading settlement soon became an administrative centre and an important railway head. As can be expected, in the years that ensued there was immigration of different categories of people such as officials, transport operators, traders small industrialists, farmers and wealthy peasants, labourers and so on. The population of Tiptur town which was 2260 in 1891 census increase to 3560 by 1901, registering an increase of 57.5 percent during the decade. Local enquiries reveal that it was during this period that the Bhovis, the Devaganigasand most of the Vysyas moved in and settled at Tiptur. The Bhovis are the traditional earth and stone workers and it is likely that most of them were engaged as laborers in the construction of the railway track in the neighbourhood or Tiptur prior to their settling down in the town. Further, on finding the atmosphere congenial, many of the early settlers are said to have brought from their home-villages (in the neighbourhood of gudiyatham, Ambaur and Veluru of Madras Province) several families to Tiptur. Perhaps there was a lot of construction work to be done and relatively higher wages to be earned. The Bhovis took up residence by the side of the then existion Adikarnataka quarters, a little away from the main town, in view of their social position in the local caste hierarchy. The Devaganigas are the traditional oil-pressers who yoke a signal bullock to the mill and are oil-mongers. One of the early migrants, Sri Singri Nanjappa, at first flourished as a copra merchant. He observed that coconut oil could be extracted from Kavatu (spoiled copra and discarded copra bits), which was at that time thrown away as fit only for manure. This discovery led him to bring forth numerous families of his caste-fellows from the vicinity of his hoe village Singry near Punganur, which then belonged to the Madras Province. Being a socially superior community they took up residence in the bazaar area of the town. There seems to have been an influx of a number of Muslim families also during this period and most of them appear to have been Nalabands (furriers). The street in which they took up residence is even now known as Nalabandavadi. The Lingayat traders, Vysya traders and a few Brahmins seem to have migrated rather inconspicuously in small numbers during this and also subsequent periods the residential area of the town expanded during this period due to the construction of the Tahsildar’s office (late 1920s) and the coming up of new settlements in its neighbourhood as well as the additions noticed in the Adikarnataka quarters and other areas.
IMPORTANT EVENTS WHICH ACCELERATE THE GROWTH OF THE TOWN:
Some of the crucial evens affecting the growth of Tiptur in the succeeding decades of the 1900’s are: opening of the first high school in 1925, introduction of piped water-supply for the first time in 1928-29; sudden rise in demand in the north Indian markets for the broomsticks made of ridge reeds of coconut plam leaves that developed during the late thirties and resulted in immigration of Tamilan labourers for processing the leaves and making of broomsticks for export; extension of electricity to the town in 1940, formation of a Regulated Market in 1948 and the shifting of its place of transactions to the new market yard in 1961; opening of the Munsiff Magistrate’s court in 1954; establishment of an arts, science and commerce college in 1962 and the opening of the General Hospital during 1965 in the new building located by the side of the college complex. Rising price and demand for copra, introduction of tube wells in coconut gardens, inclusion of seven villages to town Municipal limit (1996). Each of these events has stimulated the growth of other institutions in the town and has brought in additional population from outside, besides providing new economic opportunities to those already residing in it. The result of all these and certain other growth factors perceived in about seventeen fold increase in population during the past 100 years.
DECADAL GROWTH OF POPULATION
The following Table No.2.1 shows the population of Tiptur town in the successive censuses from 1901-1991 along with the percentage variation from one decade to the next.
Table No. 2.1
Population of Tiptur town
|Census||Population in numbers||Decadal variation in Numbers||Decadal variation in Percentage|
Source: Census of India Reports
But for notable decrease during the 1901-11 decade (which however is more or less compensated in the very next decade). Tiptur has steadily gained from census to census. The decline in 1911, it is found, is a reflection of the general trend prevailing at that time in the urban areas of not only Tumkur district but also the neighbouring districts of Hassan. The urban population of Tumkur district declined by 36.95 percent as compared to the 1901 population while the rural population registers an increase by 14.51 percent. The next decade witness a high rise of 39.31 percent in urban areas in contrast to a meager increase of 3.30 percent in rural areas. Similarly in the adjacent Hassan district, urban population declined by 33.60 percent during 1901-19 period while the rural population improved by 4.70 percent. In the next decade while the urban population increased by 25.55 the rural population registered a trady growth rate of 0.76 percent. It is also noteworthy that Tiptur Taluk, as a whole gained during the 1901-1911 decade by nearly 17 percent. These facts, when viewed together, suggest that the decrease in Tiptur’s population was a temporary phenomenon and that it might have been due to many of the urban dwellers moving out to the countryside (i.e., agricultural fields, villages etc.) to protect themselves against Epidemics such as plague, Cholers etc., which might have broken out in vicious form on the eve of the Census-taking in 1911. According to an elderly in formant the town was evacuated during this period 1911 in view of plague. This inference assumes the return of most of such inhabitants of the town to their former homes within urban limits soon after the crisis was overcome and that the population increased in succeeding years mainly due to the excess of births over deaths rather than an influx of a new population.
The decade 1911-21 too was not free epidermises. Besides, there was an outbreak of influence during1918-19. In spite of such adverse factors the town’s population increased. If the 1901 figure is taken as the base, it may be observed that over a period of 20 years there was an increase of population by 21 percent. From 1921 onwards the population has been increasing steadily as a result of immigrations and natural causes. There was large-scale influx of labourers from tamilnadu during the late thirties and early forties to work in processing coco palm leaves and preparing broomsticks. From 1951 onwards there has been a steady increase in the number of educational institutions and also in the number of government offices. Causing immigration of a different category of population to the town. Subsequent to the establishment of the Kalpataru higher education institutions, several hostels have come up in the town and the number of sojourners (i.e., students from the mofussio) and engineering students from all over the country is on the increase. In 1996, seven surrounding villages of Tiptur town have inducted to the town limit, hence there was a sudden rise in town population. Tiptur, however, has now not a stable population and even in the absence of large scale immigration, is set for a sustained growth.
By 1891, Tiptur was already a Municipal town. Its jurisdiction seems to have been originally confined to the cluster of houses situated in the ooru jaga (i.e., village’s site) of Tiptur revenue village. This position appears to have remained unchanged even when Tiptur town was constituted as a regulation Municipality in July 1918. The municipal administration reports available for most of the years from 1916-17 up to 1946-47 in the Municipal offices, consistently mention that there was no addition to the area under the control of the municipality and that there were no changes in boundaries in 1916-17 however, the records reveals that the municipality acquired 25 acres of vacant land with a view to forming a layout in the town. In 1923, the municipality formed a sub-committee to consider the feasibility of forming an extension south of railway station (Gandhinagara extension) and to recommend the lands that may be acquired for the purpose and the amount of compensation that may have to be paid for lands so acquired. Again in 1930 it is seen, several survey numbers to Tiptur villages were acquired by the Municipality for the formation of the Western Extension (K.R. Extension). Thus even though there were periodic additions to the development (i.e., built) area of the town these were not reflected in the annual administration reports.
According to the administrative report for the year 1946-47, the area of Tiptur town was 59 acres and 19 guntas (or 24 hectares) and it increased to 61 acres and 14 guntas during 1947-48. Two years later in 1949-50, the area rose to 66 acres and 12 guntas and the increase is stated to have been due to the Municipality having acquired certain lands. During 1950-51, there were an addition of 13 acres and 12 guntas. However, this practice of computing the area of the town was given up the same year and no reasons for such a step have been recorded in the administrative reports of the succeeding years. It may be interesting to know that the area of the town is 678 acres and 16 guntas according to the 951 census while the area to Tiptur village (i.e., the area situated beyond the municipal limits) is 1431 acres and 14 guntas. The total area of Tiptur as a revenue unit in 1971 is 1,461 acres and this includes the area that has been incorporated into this municipality as well.
The Administrative report for 1952-53 gives the area of Tiptur town as one square mile but does not furnish any details regarding extension of municipal limits nor the reasons for such change in extent. Since then, the area of the town remained unchanged at one square mile (or 2.59 Sq. Kms.) until the boundaries were extended by a Government Notification in 1960 (N. L.L.H. 190 TBR 59 dated 12 September 1960) so as to enclose an areas of 2.1 square miles (or 5.45 Sq. Kms.). At the time of 1961 census, the area of the town appears to have been misreported as 1.50 square miles (3.88 Sq. Kms.) though according to the boundaries delineated in the above-mentioned notification it works out to be 2.1 square miles or 5.45 square kilometers. Subsequent to the 1961 census there has not been any change in either the area or the Municipality and the next latest notification happens to be that of 1960.
It would be interesting to know that as early as in 1923, the municipal council discussed a proposal to include the adjoining villages of Goragondanahalli, Maranagere and Halepalya (a hamlet of Edenahalli) within the town limits with a view to curb tax (Octroi and Toll) evasion and to ensure proper sanitary conditions congenial to the health of town-dwellers. There was a difference of opinion regarding inclusion of Halepalya, in particular, as can be made out from the minutes recorded in the municipal resolution register. Again during October 1931, the municipal council discussed another proposal to extend the limits so as to include ‘Birla Sahebarapalya, Annapura, Hosapaly and Halepalya’ in view of these being hardly a mile away from the town proper. The other important reasons which prompted the above resolution were: “(1) the prevalence of in sanitary conditions in these settlements gave rise to periodic out breaks of epidemic diseases and consequent spread of epidemics to the town and the avoidable hardships to caused to the residents of the town, and (2) the diversion of merchandize on which the municipality had imposed octroi to these densely populated settlements having a number of large scale traders. Such traders enjoyed an advantage over the traders residing and having their shops in the town and the situation had led to smuggling of octroible goods to the town resulting in a considerable loss to the municipality”. Though the resolution was passed, it is clear, nothing happened until 1960. However, in 1947, several survey numbers of Tiptur village, Maranagere village and Kanchagatta village were notified as lands reserved for town development (No.L. 12006 14 dated 1-3-1947). It may appear strange that even according to the 1960 Notification, the villages sites of Goragondanahalli, Maranagere, Annapura,Kanchagatta and the Hamlet Halepalya of Edenahalli are beyond the limits of Tiptur Municipality. Evidently this shown the strength of rural forces that opposes inclusion of established village settlements in towns.
If the built-up area of the town is considered, as indicated earlier, there are several phases of expansion. Preliminary steps for the formation of Gandhinagar extension were taken as early as in 1923. But it was only after 1950 that buildings came up in this extension in large numbers. The Adikarnataka colony was shifted to the present site in about 1958 and at the same time the Bhovi Colony was formed. In the year 1958-59, altogether 1260 sites were formed for allotment at upset prices to those not owing houses or house sites and belonging to poor and middle classes. The areas in which these sites are located are now called the A.K.Colony, the Bhovi Colony, the Tamilan Colony and Muslim Colony. Ever since 1960 buildings are coming up in these colonies and the tempo has increased during the past 2-3 decades. In 1925-26 the high schools building came up by the Western side of the Huliyar road, about a mile away from the then developed area of the town. This intervening gap has since been filled by the formation of Krishnarajendra Extension and several buildings such as the Kalpataru college complex have come up beyond the high schools building. Soon after the introduction of electricity to the town in 1940, the electric colony came up in the early 40s. In 1949 certain lands (10 acres 38 guntas) were acquired to form the government official’s colony. In all these areas buildings came up rapidly during the 1960, 70, 80 and there were favorable chances for expansion of the town in this direction. In late 1960s already in the lands belonging to Kanchagatta village and situated behind the hospital and college, a new residential colony cane up. On either side of B.H. Road, starting from its junction with Doddapete road near Old Taluk Office right up to the commencement of the K.R. Extension, a distance of about the Kilometer, the building activity is intensely going on since 1960 and new buildings are fast replacing the old ones. Besides, new structures are being built on erstwhile vacant-sites. The tank situated on the northeastern sector of the town, does not allow any more expansion of the town in the direction. In the southeastern side the notable development is the Regulated Market yard which has come up after 1960 and a few stray houses that have been built on the Yadiyar road. The municipality has in 1972, acquired 50 acres by the side of Hassan road and another 50 acres by the side of Keragodi Road for verity of development of these. The former is situated close to the college complex and the police quarters, while the latter is beyond Ganghinagar extension and close to Tamilian colony. In the middle and late 1970s housing board colony behind Government Boy’s High School came into existence. In the 1980s M.B. Shankarappa Layout, Eastern Govinapura and Vinayakanagar in between railway line and B.H. Road have provided hundreds of sites and it resulted in faster growth of residential areas. In the same decade extension of Gandhinagar towards south and west including Indiranagar also took place. In 1986 in the Western end of the Tiptur the famous Kalpatharu Institute of Technology was established in 986. Building construction activities has further covered large numbers of vacant sites in M.B. Shankarappa Layout, Vinayakanagar, Southern Gandhinagar and Western Gandhinagar. In 1990s new extensions like Sharadanagar in west of Maranagere, Vidyanagar behind Kalpatharu institutions, Shadakshara Mutt layout in the gap between Kanchaghatta and Govinapura, Western Govinapura, Shankappa Garden in the South of K.R. Extension, Basaveshwaranagar in the south of A.P.M.C., Chamundeswari Extension in the West of Gandhinagar, Hippethopu in the south-west of Chamundeswari, linear series of houses along Y.T. Road, Hassan Road, Hiliyar Road and Commercial buildings along B.H. Road from Edenahalli gate a Kodi circle in the east, from M.C. Nursing Home to KIT and beyond each of these are recent developments together with inclusion of seven villages, and some revenue land was also included in 1996. They are Bandihalli, Goragondanahalli, Maranagere, Kanchaghatta, Annapura, Halepalya and Hosaplaya. By this time total spatial growth of Tiptur Town had reached to 1669.31 hectares. (See Figure No. 2.2)
BROAD SCENARIO OF CHANGES IN LAND USE:
The important changes in the land use pattern in the town in last 50 years are:
- The creation of a new commercial area by shifting the Regulated Market Yard to a new sit at the outskirts.
- Emergence of B.H. Road strip between Edenahalli Gate to KIT and beyond as a commercial area for shopping and luxury goods.
- Emergence of an education area at the western extremity of the town due to development of the Kalpatharu educational Institutions.
- The formation of new residential areas in lands which were formerly vacant or were agricultural fields.
- Growth in the trade of copra (dry coconut Kernel).
- Establishment of Kalpatharu Institute of Technology (Engineering College).
- Rapid growth of textile looms and its related industries in Halepalya area.
- Establishment of Coconut based industries.
- Construction of new KSRTC bus stand.
- Emerging of small-scale industrial area near Bandihalli Gate.
Though there are a few manufacturing industries in the town these are all dispersed and no definite industrial zone has emerged except a small scale industrial area near Halepalya area and small scale industrial estate near Bandihalli Gate.
IMPACT OF TOPOGRAPHY AND OTHER FACTORS ON THE GROWTH PATTERN AND GROWTH HISTORY OF THE TOWN:
Tiptur town is situated on water dividing region in the western part and southern Maidan region of Karmat. It has an average elevation of 850.30 meters above M.S.L. The local land area has undulation sloping generally from West to East with ridge like but highly sub divided landscape, similar to peneplane topography. This low relief is almost plane on oldest metamorphic rocks (Champion Grasses-Dharwar Schirts/Nuggihalli Schist belt) underlying terrain was provided firm ground for the growth of town on all sides. In fact these little influence of topography and climate on the growth to Tiptur town. This town has grown as it has already briefly mentioned due to its location on a main transportation artery. (Bangalore-Honnavar Highway and as a Central place in a coconut growing fairly rich agricultural hinterland. Forests are maintaining environment with tropical plantation. Agricultural areas Western Ghats lies to the west at about 90 kms. However, towards east dry land agriculture with limited ground water prevails. Town has expanded with severe shortage of water till 1996 but now Hemavathi (a Cauvery tributary) scheme has given some relief. However there is still dependence on ground water resource in this town.
Description of the areal spread of Tiptur Town given preciously shows that there has been a steady inflow of people, from various parts of the state and beyond, belonging to different castes or communities and following different occupations. The past few decades has lead to emergence some residential cum other functional areas. Its location on a major railway line and on the State Highway (now a national high way) besides its traditional reputation as a chief center of trade are the factors, which have attracted the bulk of the population. With the increasing numbers there arose a need for urban amenities and services the provision of which to some extent in turn has attracted more migrants. In the early 1990s till about the mid – forties plague and cholera like epidemics used to break out frequently and limit the growth of town even in Tiptur town and until 1950 of so malaria too was rampat in Tumkur district including Tiptur town. Since then public health has greatly improved. This factor too has contributed to the growth of the – town. The increasing pressure of population since 1950 has resulted in the spatial growth of the town. The large tank on the bank of which the town is situated has prevented the expansion of the town in the northeastern sides and it was revealed during enquires, that the elders have a prejudice regarding extending the town in the eastern direction. Paucity of lands for constructing buildings has not been felt so far especially in the western and southern outskirts of the town where the lands are slightly elevated and were being cultivated in the past for growing dry crops. As noticed earlier the Municipality itself has formed the extensions of suitable places. In view of the recent spurt in population like Gandhinagar, Vinayakanagar, Shankarappa Layout, Vidyanagar etc.
HISTORY OF SETTLEMENT OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF POPULATION:
Complete and authentic data could not be obtained on this aspect. On the basis of the information furnished by a few elderly and knowledgeable leaders of the town a broad out line is presented here. As noted earlier Tiptur has been in existence for about a thousand years if not more. In its pre- urbanization state, which apparently lasted for several centuries, it seems to have been an insignificant village composed of peasants, labourers, a few traders and some artisans. The Vokkaligas (peasants), Kurubas (shepherds), Banajigas (traders), Heggadigas (oil pressers who use two bullocks). Kumbaras (potters), Hajamas (barbers), Agasas (Washermen), Badagis, (carpenters), Akkasaligas (goldsmiths), kammaras (blacksmiths), and the Madigas (now called Adikarntakas – field laborers, menials and leather workers) appear to have been the earliest if not the first settlers. When Veerashaiva faith became popular in this region during the 13th century and afterwards, it is likely that some of the residents of Tiptur embraced the new faith and adopted the appellation of “Lingayats”. On the other hand, a few families who had already become Lingayats might have moves in and settled at Tiptur at first, followed by subsequent conversions. Anyway, the Lingayats n Tiptur have all along been a socially and economically dominant community and quite a large proportion among them are migrants during the six past to eight decades or the descendants of such immigrants. The first settlements of Muslims at Tiptur and its neighbourhood might have come up during the later decades 17th century, following the conquests of the Bijapur General, Ranadullah Khan. In 1,638 Sira (about 50 kilometers from Tiptur) became the seat of the Bijapur Kingdom and this position did not change even after the Mughals annexed the Bijapur Territories in 1686. It is on the other hand, quite likely that the Muslim settlements came up during the reign of Haider Ali (1763-82) and Tippu Sultan (1782-99). Anyway, by 1891, the Muslims formed 17.43 percent of the town’s population. Trade and agriculture seen to have attracted these early settlers. The Marathas appear to have settled during the18th century mostly as traders in cloth and as garments makers.
A couple of centuries ago, it is said, there were only one or two households of Brahmins hers. The ancestors of the Grama or Sthala Purohit (hereditary village priest of Tiptur) moved from Settikere of Chikknayakanahalli Taluk (16 kilometers from Tiptur) about 200 years ago, and though settled at Tiptur, the family continued to keep alive the social and economic links with its place of origin until recently. Soon after the shifting of Taluk headquarters, about 20 households of Brahmins, mostly composed of Shanbogues (here dietary village accountants) and clerks moved in and since then there has been a steady tickle of Brahmins from different towns and villages. Some of them took up work as accounts clerks with the local merchants and with the passage of time themselves became reputed traders, of course with the support of their former employers. Most of the other Brahmins were teachers, clerks, and a few petty traders. The early migrants are said to be from Davanagere, Bellary, Tumkur, Chikkanayakanahalli besides villages in Tiptur Taluk. During the past five or six decades a considerable number of Brahmins hailing from South Kanara and engaged in hotel or restaurant business have moved to Tiptur and are running several hotels in the town, during the past decade, a few families of Gowda Saraswats (whose mothe tongue is Konkani) among them few are industrialists and hotelkeeper, have immigrated to Tiptur. They are represented in all the spheres of economic and social life of the town. There has not been any out-migration of Brahmins (except those of some sojourners who come and go on transfer) from Tiptur during the recent past instead their number is gradually increasing.
The Lingayath community, which includes traders and cultivatiors, may be regarded as one of the early settlers. Their numbers swelled after the introduction of the railways by the immigration of merchants and their assistants from Davanagere, Mysore and Ranebennur, besides towns such as Arasikere, Tumkur, Gubbi, Huliyar, Hasssan, etc., and villagers of its immediate neighborhood. Most of the land owning cultivators is of local origin. The Lingayats, of whom there are about 800 households, are an economically and socially dominant community of the town. Among them are to be found the cultivators, farmers, diarists; the trader (both large and small scale); the professional practitioners such as doctors and advocates; contractors; the teachers and the clerks. Some of them are maintaining hotels and restaurants also. There has not been any large-scale out-immigration of Lingayats during the past few decades.
The Vysyas, community of trades too, has been residing at Tiptur for the past 150 or 200 years. The strength of this community also increased to a great extent after the introduction of railway and consequent immigrations from Chikknayakanahalli, Gubbi, Huliyar, Tumkur, Bangalore, Gauribidanur and a few other places. As in the past, trade and commerce continue to be their mainstay. Their role is important in hardware and jewellery business. A few own Lorries and are engaged in transportation of goods. Some of them own and operate printing presses, while a few have flourmills (small scale). Very few have entered ministerial services. As a community they too are economically dominant and the elders of the community have been evincing keen interest in social, cultural, and civic affairs of the town.
It has already been indicated those the Heggadigas, of whom there, have been in the town for a few centuries past while the Devaganigas are migrants during the past 8 decades or so. The first immigrant of this caste was one singri Nanjappa who at first took copra trade and then discovered that oil could be easily extracted from kavtu which was at that period being described by copra merchants as waste and as manure by the agriculturists. Accordingly, he set up oil-ganas and induced several relatives of his from the neighbourhood of his home-village to join him. This resulted in the immigration of the some thirty or forty households. They are mostly concentrated in Coronation Road, which was formerly known as Ganigara Pete. A few of them are living in K.R. Extension while a few other s are in Gandhinagar Extension. After the advent of rotary-mill operated by electricity (since about 1950), the traditional form of extracting oil with the help of animal power has been given up. Production and sale of oil continues to be an important pursuit of these Ganigas even how. A few are now copra and general merchants while a handful of them have taken up professions such as that of building contractors, transport operators and some have taken to clerical occupations in local institutions. The leaders of this community have been evincing keen interest in the economic, socio-cultural and civic life of the town.
Another community, which migrated to Tiptur in large numbers following the introduction of the railways, is that of Bhovis (a Scheduled Caste) also known as Voddas. They hail from Ambur, Veluru, Gudiyattam etc., of the Ex-Madras Province and are traditionally stone and earth workers and masons. Their influx took place within a short span of five or ten years and there have not been any further migrations from about the 1990s, Most of their men and women work in stone quarries and in construction works. A few are small-scale contractors. They also work in coconut gardens for bounding and earthwork and are also engaged for sinking wells. None of them has become a leading trader. They are concentrated in the area called Bhovi colony. Economically and socially they constitute a weaker community.
Adi- Karnataka’s are of local origin. In addition to the scions of the earliest or the first settled households there has been some addition due to migration households from the rural areas of Tiptur Taluk. Traditionally they have been field labourers, leather workers and village menials. Even now most of their women are casual agricultural labourers while both men and women work in the town and its vicinity as construction laboures. Some households have obtained lands by way of Darkast (Government grant) for cultivation. While some other are petty shopkeepers. Several of them are employed in the municipality as sweepers. In view of the social stigma of untouchability it is said, they constitute a socially and economically weaker section.
There are Adidravidas (also called Chalavadis) who were formerly village servants and now labourers and municipal employees. They too constitute a Scheduled Caste. The Adi- Karnataka and the Adidravidas are concentrated in the areas called Adi- Karnataka colony.
The Tamilians are now a numerically important community. Their immigration is said to have started about 70 years ago and the first settlers are identified as Arjuna Gounder and Subbaraya Gounder, both from Arkonam. It is said they took to sawing of timber. The other who came to Tiptur subsequently became a general labourer. All the Hindu-Tamilians are said to belong to the Gounder community and the reasons given for out-migration form their home village are the acute shortage of food and water due to drought and acute conditions and the relatively higher cost of living in big towns and cities of Tamil Nadu. The Tamilians hail from the rural areas of Arkonam, Wallajanpet, Veluru and Dholingar taluks. All of them claim to be of the same caste. Their influx is said to have taken place on a large scale after 1940 when Soge kaddi (ridge-sticks of coconut palm leaf) brooms suddenly developed an expanding market creating a need for labourers. They are concentrated in the Tamilian Colony, Bhovi Colony and huts near the Lakshmi Theatre. Their men work as hamalis (labourers in regulated markets yard) and a few are masons while handfuls are engaged in buying and selling of gunny bags and gunny-cloth. Men, women, and children engage themselves in Kaddi-hereyuvudu (processing the coconut palm leaves and separating the ridge-sticks) and parake-kattuvudu (making broom-sticks) from morning till night and carry on their living. They can also be grouped among the economically and socially backward sections.
The Hindu-Community consists of several other castes as the Kshatriyas, Marathas (Darji), the Vokkaligas, the Kurbuas, the Bestas, the Deshebagada and so on. However, during the course of this study, details regarding the migration and settlement of these numerically minority sects could not be collected.
The Musilms have a settlement history of not less than 150 years. Their population has been increasing steadily due to natural causes during the past few decades and there have been some cases of immigration also. It is said that in 1947, following the creation of Pakistan, a few Muslims whose home towns were in Kathiawar and other North Indian cities or towns, left Tiptur for permanent settlement elsewhere. Barring this, there have not been any emigrations of Muslims. Though there are a numbers of traders among Muslims, those engaged as commission agents or wholesalers are only a handful. The rest are medium and small traders. They are met with in all the economic spheres of the town and several of them are labourers. They are concentrated in a few streets such as the Nalabandavadi street (Farrier’s Street), Makkan street, portion of Gandhinagar extension, police lanes and a few other streets of the town. They too are evincing interest civic and social affairs of the town.
The Jains at Tiptur are in-migrants from the North Indian States such as Gujarat, Rajasthan and though a few of them have been living here from about fifty years, almost all of them have retained economic and social links with their place of origin. They came to Tiptur as traders and even now almost all of their men are in the field of trade and commerce.
The Christians of Tiptur also represent the sporadic and recent in-imgrants from nearby towns and cities. There has not been any large scale or even noticeable instances of conversions to Christianity either at or around Tiptur. The establishments of a church in 1948 and, more recently (1962) of the convent schools have contributed to the growth of the Christian community at Tiptur.
The Sikhs at Tiptur are recent in migrants from Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Other ports of North India. They are only a handful in numbers. All of them are copra and broomstick (made out of coconut palm leaves stick) traders.
MORPHOLOGY OF THE TOWN:
As even the entire revenue are a of Tiptur village was not included within the municipal limits, it became necessary during 1971 census to constitute such non-municipal area into an independent unit of enumeration and designate it as “Tiptur (Rural)’ as distinct from Tiptur town. On the north, the boundary of the town coincides with that of Tiptur revenue village and the villages on the other side of the border are Edenahalli and Annaopura. On the east and the south, the municipal boundary line runs through the agricultural fields belonging to Tiptur revenue village. The shape of the town was irregular. The eastern half is broader than the western half. Buy after inclusion of Hlepalya and Annapura and Maranagere, the middle part of the town is wider than east and west. But one tank situated in the north – eastern portion of the town occupied a large area and constitutes a negative area in the town-scape.
The B.H. road and railway lie, which cut across the town from east to west divide into three natural segments of unequal size. The ‘northern strip’ (i.e., area lying north B.H road ) has the tank in its eastern half where building activity is confined to the sites facing the B.H road, Krishanarajendra Extension is located in the central portion of the strip while towards the western end are situated the boys Middle School, the High School, The hospital and the college complex. In the north- western portion there are building on wither side of the Huliyar road. After 1996, when Halepalya and Annapura became a part of the town the northern strip gained more importance particularly because of the industries. In this strip, for the last 25 years new extensions like Shankarappa Layout, shankarappa Garden, Housing Board Colony, Shadaksara Mutt Layout, Vidayanagara, are developing fast. The establishment of Kalpataru Institute of technology in 1986 is an important factor in the growth of the town. With this, in 1996 the village Kanchgatta merged with the Municipal limit. All these factors have changed the form of northern strip of the B.H. road. The ‘middle strip’ (i.e., the area sandwiched between the B.H. road and the railway line) is comparatively very narrow but consists of the oldest parts of the town as well as the areas that have been developing in recent years. The railway station road divides this strip in to (i) the eastern half which comprises the Kote (Fort) and Pete (Bazar) which together constitute the core- town and, (ii) the weatern half which was full of coconut gardens and a mango grove and some buildings abutting the B.H. road before 1975. After ther late 1970’s, 1980’s and 90’s the development of buildings in K.S. Garden, Vinayaka Nagara and bid commercial complexes along B.H. road have completely changed in landscape of the middle strip. Another part of the middle strip, the western part, was limited to offices of the P.W.D., the K.P.T.C.L, the munsiff Magisttrate’s Court, police quarters and some other official quarters and the official’s colony towards the fag end in the west. The travelers’ cum inspection Bungalow is also located in the western portion of this strip. After 1975, more offices constructed. For example, New Tahasildar office, Taluk Treasury, Asst. Director of Industries and Commerce, Asst. Commercial Tax officer, Asst. Conservator of Forest, Forest Range Office, Office of the Social Forestry, Life insurance Corporation of India, Asst. Director of Fisheries etc. The ‘southern strip’ (i.e., the area south of the railway line) cover a relatively small extent and the southern boundary of this strip coincides with the serpentine course of a natural drain called Hosahalli. This strip too, may be divided into the eastern half, which has the Regulated Market yard, Banidhalli Goragondanahalli and open space all around it and, the middle half which is mainly a residential area comprising A.K. Colony, Gandhinagar Extension, Tamilian Colony, Bhovi Colony, Indiranagar, Chamundeswary Extension and Hippenton. After Bovi colony, the other extensions, which are mentioned, are recently established areas of the southern strip. The third part of southern strip is Maranagere and Sharadha Nagara, which is located in the western part of southern strip.
For the purpose of municipal elections which are conducted periodically, the town is divided into several units undergo a change can be visualized by the following. Tiptur was divided into seven divisions for the municipal elections held during the year 1949-50. Then, for the 1952 elections it was divided into twenty divisions and this arrangement continued during the next elections held in March 1956. The municipal limits of Tiptur were extended by a Government Notification dated 12-9-1960. And for the elections held during 1960-61, the town was consisted into four divisions. In the 1965 elections also there were only four divisions. But, the town came to be divided into five divisions for the 1969 elections. There was proposal to divide the town into six territorial divisions for purposes of the 1971 census. These changes took place subsequently as population increased. Finally in 1996, the resolution made by the Municipal authority was accepted by the State Government, and on the basis of notification No, HUD/335/TTP/96 dated 2/9/1996 the town Tiptur was further extended to 1160 hectares and seven surrounding villages were merged with the town Municipal limit and total are has reached to 1669.3 hectares. At present (2001) there are 27 wards formed for the municipal elections.
The figures No 2.2 reveal the morpholoty of the town on the basis of origin of the different parts of the Tiptur town. They may be divided into (1) before 1900, (2)1900-1920, (3)1920-1940, (4)1940-1975 and (5) after 1975. Naturally the land use of Tiptur town also has got different shapes, as town grow. Figures 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 show the status of land use in 1970, 1980 and 2000.
- Before 1900 Tiptur was a village. The location of this village limited to Kote area perhaps, this is the oldest part of the present town.
- “Between” 1900-2000. After the introduction of railway line and B.H. road, Tiptur gained more importance and started growing. In 1920 Tiptur became the sub-divisional headquarters of Tiptur, Turuvekere, and Chikkanayakanahalli taluks. Thus, the town has grown up to the Aralikatte Circle. It includes the Tahasildar office and police station near Aralikatte circle.
- “Between” 1920-1940, during this period the town limit extended up to the railway station road. Residential, commercial and administrative land uses were a part of this.
- “Between” 1940-1957, After 1940 due to the huge in migration of labourers from Tamilnadu and other surrounding parts of Karnataka the expansion of the town has taken pale on a large scale. A number of colonies like A.K. Colony, Bhovi Colony, Tamilian Colony, and Muslim Colony have come into existence. During 1940s K.R. extensions started to develop with the best town plan. In 1961 regulated market yard was shifted to Southeastern part of the railway station. It was one of the acceleratory forces for the development of the town. After the birth of K.R. extensions, the part ion between Municipal office and K.R. extensions developed. During this period a number of commercial buildings came in to existence establishment of Kalpathatu Science, Arts and Commerce College was established; construction to general Hospital and establishment of number of administrative offices took place. In the western part of the town consequently, a number of houses were built behind the general Hospital and Kalpatharu College. After K.R. extensions, houses started coming up around K.P.T.C.L. Master Control station. Similarly, the growth of housing in the west and southern part of Gandhinagar also happened.
- After 1975 during this period a number of new extensions like Vinayakanagara, Indiranagara, M.B. Shankarappa Layout, Vidyanagara, Shadaksara Mutt Extensions, were formed and number of houses in the edge of the town were built. In 1996 an important event related to the growth of the town. They took place villages around the town merged with the town Municipal limits. It extended the area of Tiptur town to 1669.3 hectares of total town limit. Plate No.1 shows some cultural landscape of the town within three decades.